What are the two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
1. Autonomic Nervous System 2. Somatic Motor System
What are the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
1. The sympathetic nervous system 2. The parasympathetic nervous system
What are the principle functions of the sympathetic nervous system?
1. Regulation of the cardiovascular system 2. Regulation of body temp 3. Implementation of fight-or-flight
Which system regulates most organs - parasympathetic or sympathetic?
Which system regulates blood vessels - parasympathetic or sympathetic?
What are the three transmitters of the peripheral nervous system?
1. Acetylcholine 2. Norepinephrine 3. Epinephrine
What are the three major subtypes of cholinergic receptors?
1. Nicotinic N 2. Nicotinic M 3. Muscarinic
What are the four major subtypes of adrenergic receptors?
1. Alpha 1 2. Alpha 2 3. Beta 1 4. Beta 2
Is the autonomic nervous system responsible for voluntary or involuntary processes?
What are the three major functions of the autonomic nervous system?
1. Regulation of the heart 2. regulation of secretory glands (Salivary, gastric, sweat, bronchial.) 3. Regulation of smooth muscles (bronchi, blood vessels, urogenital system, GI tract)
Where are baroreceptors located?
1. In the cartoid sinus 2. in the aortic arch
What is the role of the adrenal medulla?
Sympathetic nervous system component - Releases epinephrine into the blood stream
Which transmitter is employed at most junctions of the PNS?
Where is epinephrine the transmitter?
What function do cholinergic drugs have on the eye?
1. Contraction of the cilary muscle focuses the lens for near vision 2. contraction of the iris sphincter muscles cause miosis (decreased pupil diameter), which causes problems for night vision or bright light.
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on the heart?
Decreased heart rate.
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on the lungs?
Constriction of bronchi Increased bronchial secretions
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on the bladder?
Contraction of detruser increases bladder pressure. Relaxation of trigone and sphincter allows urine to leave the bladder. These two equal voiding.
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on the GI tract.
Salivation Increased gastric secretions Increased intestinal tone and motility Defecation
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on sweat glands?
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on sex organs?
What impact do cholinergic drugs have on blood vessels?
Prevent breakdown of ACh, which activates muscarinic receptors.
What is the major use of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors?
What are secondary uses for reversible cholinesterase inhibitors?
Reversal of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade, treatment of glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and poisoning by muscarinic antagonists.
Which drug is the preferred cholinesterase inhibitor for treating poisoning by muscarinic antagonists, and why?
Physostigmine b/c it crosses membranes easily.
What is the major use for irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors?
Insecticides and glaucoma.
Describe cholinergic crises.
Depolarizing meuromuscular blockade plus signs of excessive muscarinic stimulation (WETBED). Death from respiratory depression.
How would irreversible cholinesterase poisoning be treated?
atropine, mechanical ventilation, pralidoxime (to reverse inhibition of cholisterase), and diazepam to suppress seizures.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by fluctuation muscle weakness and rapid fatigue. Symptoms include ptosis (drooping of eyelids), difficulty swallowing, weakness of skeletal muscles. Immune system attacks NicotinicM.
What is the number one most common neurodegenerative disease?
What is the second most common neurodegenerative disease?
What are some common sources of anticholinergic poisoning?
CNS depression, Anterograde amnesia,abuse potential, teratogenic heart and face malfuncti
What are some therapeutic uses of barbituates?
daytime sedation, induction of sleep, supression of seizures, general anethesia.
What are some adverse effects of barbituates?
Respiratory and CNS depressions, high risk of abuse.
Non-Benzo used to treat general anxiety disorder.
High Loop and Thiazides are used to treat hypertension and edema with what conditions?
pulmonary edema with CHF edema of hepatic cardiac renal origin that has been unresponsive to other diuretics hypertension that cant be controlled with thiazide & K-sparing diuretics patients who need diuretics but have low renal blood flow
Where do thiazides work?
Early in the distal convoluted tubule.
What effect to Calcium Channel Blockers have on the heart?
Decrease force of contraction, SA node, reduce heart rate, AV node: slows velocity
Would you use dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers for disrrhythmis?
Should you use fast acting nifedipine SL? Why or why not?
No, because it kills people.
Should you combine beta blockers with non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers?