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Politics of Greece was based on reason, that of the Romans on love (of country, and Rome itself); Romans thought of their city as a family, and Romulus as the ancestor of them all, while the family for the Greeks signified at the philosophical level merely those necessities in our animal nature which the freedom of politics transcended
Dante admired the empire, which brought peace to the world; Machiavelli presented the virtue of the early republic for imagination; both responded to the story of Rome as the endlessly fascinating adventures of a people who thought of themselves as having a mission to civilize the world
Physical power verses legal right and power inhering in an office and all offices shared in the imperium, or the total quantum of power available to the Roman state
The junction of politics with the Roman religion, which involved the worship of families and hence of ancestors; moral fluid of the Greeks
Greek historian who explained to his fellow Greeks what this new hegemon (Rome) was like; explained the success of Rome by the fact that her constitution was monarchial, aristocratic, and democratic
Argued that conflict within the state, so long as it was subordinated to the public interest, merely reflected the Roman concern for liberty and for the protection of civil rights; beyond the harmony that results from everyone knowing his place is another harmony, in which conflict is resolved by the free discussion and free acceptance of whatever outcome emerges from constitutional procedure
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome; executed the leading senators who he thought had supported Servius Tullius; ruled through fear because he usurped the throne by force; did not consult the Senate, but was his own sole master in questions of peace and war
Son of the king’s sister Tarquina; his brother was murdered by Tarquin, so he disguised himself as a half-wit; went to the oracle at Delphi and interpreted her prophecy of the first to kiss one’s mother will be king as kissing the Earth; later became one of the first consuls elected by popular vote after leading a revolt against Tarquin the Proud
Son of Egerius; husband of Lucretia; claimed he had the most superior wife; later became one of the first consuls elected by popular vote; went into self-exile because his clan name was hated
Children of Brutus and the sister of the brothers Vitelli; involved in the conspiracy to regain the crown
Ten aristocrats who drafted the Twelve Tables of the Roman law; committed two infamous crimes
Leader of the Decemvirs; conceived a guilty passion for a girl of plebeian birth (second infamous crime); brought about a plot to get her to be his woman; brought her to a false court as a runaway slave
Emerged out of brutality and violence; religion played an independent role for the first time; emergence of civic order is the most important strand of all in the weaving of our political texture
Outcome of successive waves of migration by tribes pushed westwards by the pressure of others behind them- Barbarians à Conversion to Christianity à Took while for old stability of the Roman era to return
Kings were guardians of law; they made themselves available to the lowest in the land as a court of appeal against the exactions of their own direct vassals
King of England as fountainhead of justice had a sheriff in each county, and his justices traveled the country dispensing justice in response to an ever more flexible set of claims and petitions called writs; nobles, however, had the right to force an errant king to recognize a betrayal of his trust and to force him to make reparation (For example, King John forced to sign Magna Charta)
Lay in the fact that the king could not rule, even to the extent of carrying out the very limited functions of rule as it was understood at that time, without cooperation of partners. He had to consult the nobles, magnates of the Church, and in time, representatives from the towns who could make commitments of money. Medieval politics concerned religion and showed the beliefs and feelings the English civilization had about being alive
It was important because the Bible was viewed as important in Christianity; because of this, it became a complicated structure of beliefs, sentiments, injunctions, and rituals and required a vast amount of intellectual reflection, including philosophizing, in order to make it a coherent whole
i. Religion determined politics because the most important thing in most lives was eternal salvation, and communities were reluctant to tolerate forms of belief unpleasing to God
ii. The political significance of these passions lies in the fact that the civil society of the time was conceived of as an association of believers
Rise and roles of the courtier
i. Aim was advancement and whose skill was to please.
ii. The nobility were assimilated into the court, and found that they had to become educated in order to retain their traditional role as the monarch’s counselor.
i. Jean Bodin- French Lawyer, Sovereignty was “the absolute and perpetual power vested in a commonwealth which in Latin is termed maietas.
ii. Thomas Hobbes- Emphasized individual torn between the passions for glory and the fear of death. The source of the sovereign’s authority lay in the consent of the people themselves; indeed they only became a people in the proper sense by appointing him as their representative.
i. Roman model adopted for modern politics
ii. Prince ; Handbook of the art of policy
i. Liberal View- descending from medieval conceptions of freedom and kingship, as sustaining a civic order to be enjoyed.Repressive view- standing over against the aspirations of its exploited subjects, the state as a problem because it is a repressive thing that needs to be humanized
Nostalgia for the lost world of the Republic
Sustained a civic order to be enjoyed
The church and the civil community; the individual Christian was a member of both and part of a very divided society
The movements of economic quantities were determinate, at least in principle (supply and demand); brought thinkers to believe economics could be the real key to the science of man
Rationalism taught people to regard themselves as part of humanity, possibly sharing in what were soon to be called the “rights of man”, but romanticism made them take notice of the fact that each person had different culture, which was a kind of spiritual, rather than political, body
Nationalism is the doctrine that every culture ought to be self-determining; socialism is a reflection on the relation between politics and the economy
Individualist societies believe they should be self-moving and avoid being a burden on others for their needs and resources
Three aspects of tradition:
1. The idea of limits on the power of kings and magistrates
2. The rule of law, by which all members of a society may regulate their conduct
3. Consensual development of such law, as opposed to top-down decree by the supreme authority of the state
An excellent summary of the legal and political tradition of England; the constitutional and judicial system that had grown up in England across a span of centuries, and in behalf of which the most notable battles for English liberty had been fought; combined unwritten custom, judicial decision, decrees of parliament, grants and agreements by the kings, adding up to an enormous skein of precedents, diligently studied and applied by English courts and lawyers
Mankind has a perpetual and restless desire of power after power that ceases only in death; the cause of this is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight than he has already attained to, or that he cannot be content with a moderate power, but because he cannot assure the power and means to live well, which he has present, without the acquisition of more
1. Competition: Men invade for gain and use violence to make themselves masters of other men’s property
2. Diffidence: Men invade for safety to defend themselves
3. Glory: Men invade for reputation over trifles, as a word, a smile, a different opinion, and any other sign of undervalue
Have no place in war; where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice; justice and injustice are none of the faculties neither of the body nor mind; they are qualities that relate to men in society, not in solitude
10th Century order of civil rulers; in it, rulers are forced to rule and defend the realm in God’s name and with his aid; in response, the people submit themselves to the ruler by shouting “amen”
1. The first is to do whatsoever he thinks fit for the preservation of himself and others within the permission of the law of Nature2. The second is the power to punish the crimes committed against that law.
Nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, to destroy his own life, or to take away the life or property of another.
Rules which people must conform to, the fundamental law of Nature being the preservation of mankind
1. They are to govern by promulgated established laws
2. These laws also ought to be designed for no other end ultimately but the good of the people
3. They must not raise taxes on the property of the people without the consent of the people given by themselves or their deputies
4. Legislative neither must nor can transfer the power of making laws to anybody else, or place it anywhere but where the people have it
Consists in the fact that the compact made between the constituent states who wish to enter into that federation provides that not only shall the legislatures of the different states be supreme concerning the powers which have been delegated or left to them, but that they shall have a voice as states concerning the powers which are delegated to the federal government
The family; and it is on the family that we in government build our own policies for welfare, education, and care.
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