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Wellesley Sr High School
Wellesley Sr High School
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World History: People & Nations
"story" of the French Revolution
king Louis XIV causes debt and taxes lower class
3rd estate becomes national legislature
storming of the bastille and the uprise of commoners
declaration is written
take property from church
NL makes France a limited monarchy
king flees & is killed
Rein of Terror: France became a "republic" (more like a Jacobin dictatorship) and all titles/ social traits gone
council appointed by legislature runs France
Napoleon rises to power and conquers Europe, but then invades Russia and is defeated
main ideas of
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
LIBERTY: freedom of action, so long as those actions don't injure others
EQUALITY: everyone is born w/ the same permanent rights
FRATERNITY: idea that there is a united "people" of France
relationship btw French Rev. and liberalism
the emergence of liberty and equality lead to the questioning of authority
relationship btw French Rev. and conservatism
French Rev. was failure--> people look to old ways (monarchies) for examples.
Congress of Vienna was conservative--> CoV was in action as a result of IR
relationship btw FR and nationalism
Napoleon sparked nationalism in france and all the countries he occupied--> united Europe temporarily
main ideas of liberalism
freedom of expression/ideas w/ no govt intervention
easy ability to form new ideas
main thinker is Mill
right to have equal opportunities--> not necessarily equal outcome
based off declaration
main ideas of conservatism
tradition is the source of all authority
absolute monarchies has been successful in the past and are therefore the best form of govt
the belief of equal rights is dangerous because it leads to socail chaos (eg. FR)
community is more important than the individual
what is the Congress of Vienna?
conservative council that met to restore Europe to the way it was (monarchies). tried to suppress the rising liberal and nationalist ideas and equalize European countries
what is the evolution from classical to modern liberalism?
classical: absence of govt in economy
modern: provides social welfare for ppl, regulates economy -LEFT
(provide social welfare=meeting basic needs for ppl in society
what is the evolution from classical to modern conservatism?
classical: maintain traditional values, regulate economy
modern: maintain traditional values, not involved in providing social welfare or regulating economy -RIGHT
how are modern conservatives similar to classical liberals?
both believe in absence of govt in economy and NOT providing social welfare
main ideas of nationalism
belief system that has implications for how the world should be run --> cultures should be run by people
same basic ideas as liberalism, but define who "the people" are
patriotism for your nation
shifted from connection to country because of culture to a tool of social control
story of French Revolutions after Congress of Vienna
king Louis's brother new king--> worked w/ ppl--> limited monarchy
Charles X king--> tried to bring back old regime
ppl revolted king flees
king Louis Philippe establishes constitutional monarchy--> becomes corrupt
ppl revolt and he flees
the second republic is created--> 10-man committee
non-conservatives split--> become moderates & radials
national workshops created (pro-socialist)
June Days Uprising: riots b/c N.W. closed
Napoleon III elected for republic--> becomes corrupt
what is the significance of the June Days Uprising?
because the national workshops, a socialist idea, failed, liberalism seems like a better idea
are the FRs conservative, liberal, or socialist?
when French govt was destroyed, liberals and socialists disagree on what it should be changed to and therefore conservatives come out victorious
story of Italian unification
nationalist stirred up by Napoleon
Mazzini: wants a republic (romanic nationalist and liberal)
Cavour: realpolitik--> used nationalism as a tool of social control, wants constitutional monarchy, drives out Austrians occupying Italy
Garibaldi: united Italy from the south, wanted constitutional monarchy
story of German unification
Arndt: early German romantic nationalist, had idea of the German "volk"
students inspired by Arndt protested
Metternich imposed the Karlsbad Decrees--> conservative list of right of govt to stop the flow of ideas in Germany
Germans started to rebel
king of Prussia stops them w/ the promise of unity--> created the Frankfurt Parliament (ineffective)
king appoints Bismarck as prime minister
united germany w/ realpolitik methods-- used war and nationalism as a tool
united it bc of his want for power
how did Bismarck redefine nationalism as a means of conservative control?
changed what is meant to be "German"--> loyal to the state
catholics & socialists posed the greatest threat to unification, so they were obviously not loyal to German state and therefore not German
his definition gives him the most power b/c the most possible amount of ppl that could be loyal to him that would not harm his power are covered under the definition
how is the Civil War an example of a nationalist movement?
before CW, US was not a nation, just a state because not everyone was bonded under a common culture--> difference btw north and south
example--> if north succeeds, nationalism succeeds
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