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Southeastern Louisiana University
Southeastern Louisiana University
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two major particles found IN an atom
proton and neutron
electrons are found where?
outside the nucleus shell
has weight and a positive charge
has weight and no charge
no weight negative charge
in an isotope, what number is higher
neutron # is normally greater than proton #
What is an isotope?
an atom thats proton # is not identical to neutron #
What is the exception when dealing with isotopes?
what number is constant and fixed?
in an isotope, what number is variable?
#of protons in an atom
# of protons+neutrons
usually twice atomic #
average of mass # of all isotopes
Stability is determined by what?
organization of electrons in the orbitals surrounding the nucleus
what dictates the # of bonds that must be formed to make an atom stable
# of electrons required to be added or lost from the outermost shell
unstable and reactive atoms
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, sodium, and chlorine
stable and unreactive atom
how many electrons can the inner most shell contain?
what is the maximum # of electron a subsequent shell can contain?
atoms must have how many electrons in their outer shell to be stable?
how many bonds must from to make hydrogen stable?
how many bonds must form to make carbon stable?
how many bonds must form to make oxygen stable?
how many bonds must form to make sodium stable?
how many bonds must form to make chlorine stable?
what are the 3 bonds associated with biology?
hydrogen, ionic, and covalent
what bond is the strongest and most important?
what bond is the weakest but middle importance?
what bonds are middle in strength but least important
ionic bonds form between..
when atoms lose electrons to become stable
atom gains electrons to become stable
ionic bonds do/dont have to be permanent. why?
dont; because the charged atoms are stable
incomplete orbitals of atoms overlap so that pairs of electrons can be shared to complete orbitals
# of covalent bonds depends on..?
# of pairs of electrons that need to be shared to complete orbital
what are polar molecules?
water and amino acids
polar molecules have..?
weak, partial negative charge at one region (oxygen in water)
partial positive charge elsewhere (hydrogen in water)
polarity is a result of what?
unequal sharing of electrons during covalent bonf formation.
what causes unequal sharing of electrons in covalent bond formations?
significant differences in the mass of nuclei of atoms
force of attraction between polar molecules
what is primarily responsible for properties of water?
the attraction created by hydrogen bonds
high heat of vaporization
a large amount of energy is needed to convert liquid water
hydrogen bonds are permanent at..?
o degrees celsius
outcomes of properties of water
evaporation of sweat
moderating temp shifts in ecosystem
where is climate more moderate?
near large bodies of water
what are the 3 true macromolecules?
carbs, proteins and neucleic acid
macromolecules that is not a true macro
regulate reactions of life
covalent bonds are the major source of energy for cells when broken
storage of genetic infor (enzymes) in DNA and RNA for the conversion of genetic infor into protein
polymers are made of?
polymers are ______ bonded together
covalent bonds form from the removal of part water from each atom so that the covalent bond forms
polymers form covalent bonds through..?
sugar in greek
what does N stand for
# of water molecules
starched and sugars
why arent lipds true macro
no covalent bonds linking monomers
has sulfhydrl group
doesnt have sulfhydrl group
how many amino acids are there?
monosaccharide ALWAYS organized as linear chain
triose and tetrose
monosaccharides normally form ring structure but can form linear chain
pentose, hexose, and heptose
carbs can be classified as..?
simple carbs -monosaccharides
complex carbs- polysaccharides
few monosaccharides covalently bonded together
addition of water to break covalent bonds
in proteins, monomers are called?
amino acids have slight negative charge associated with the ...?
carboxyl group (c=0)
amino acids have slight positive charge associated with ..?
amine group (n-h)
type of covalent bond. forms between the 2 funtional groups of 2 amino acids
simple lipids are composed of..?
subunits made from fatty acids covalently bonded to triose sugar glycerol
complex lipids subunits are called?
phosphodiglycerides are composed of
2 fatty acids
a phosphate group attached to the glycerol
two main functions of nucleic acid
storage of genetic info (dna) and conversion info into proteins (rna)
monomers of nucleic acids
nucleotides can be used to..
store chemical energy and as coenzymes in major biochemical reactions
nucleotides are composed of
phosphate attached to carbon5
nitogen base attached to carbon1
nitrogen bases are classified as..?
2 ringed purines or single ringed pyrimidenes
two ringed purines
adenine and guanine
single ringed pyrimidenes
thymine, uracil, and cytosine
DNA have witch nitrogen bases?
a & g
t & c
RNA contains which nitrogen bases?
a & G
u & c
the purine_____ only bonds with pyrimidene _______
G & C; A & T
transcription and translation
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