Piaget's cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called: a. sensorimotor intelligence. b. reflexes stage. c. primary circular reaction. d. preoperational thought.
Piaget's first period of cognitive development highlights that: a. at birth, infants are active learners. b. infants learn through adaptation. c. infants' motor skills and senses are the conduits for learning. d. All of these answers are correct.
all of the above
What occurs when infants change from sucking their mother's breast to sucking a pacifier? a. adaptation b. object permanence c. tertiary circular reaction d. secondary circular reaction
The results of subsequent experiments were inconsistent with the conclusions of Piaget by demonstrating that infants:
a. have some understanding of object permanence as young as 4 months. b. have no understanding of object permanence at 8 months. c. have complete understanding of object permanence at 3 months. d. understand object permanence according to their ethnic group
have some understanding of object permanence as young as 4 months.
The technique ______ can measure changes in activity ANYWHERE in the brain. a. EEG b. ERP c. PET d. fMRI
The information-processing theory compares human thinking to: a. evolutionary theory. b. computer functioning. c. Freud's psychoanalytic theory. d. the principles of behaviorism.
Regarding the visual cliff experiment, even 3-month-olds notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff. However, one affordance of the cliff, falling, is realized only after: a. adequate depth perception develops. b. parents teach infants about falling. c. infants start crawling. d. maturation of the visual cortex.
infants start crawling
Research has demonstrated that infants as young as 3 months old can remember after two weeks if provided with: a. memory-enhancing drugs. b. a brief reminder session. c. colorful toys. d. soothing music.
a brief reminder session
Toddlers ages 16 to 20 months are able to: a. demonstrate deferred imitation. b. use several kinds of memory. c. think conceptually. d. All of these answers are correct.
all of the above
What is an infant's first means of communication? a. cooing b. crying c. squeals d. vowel sounds
Which is TRUE of deaf babies and babbling? a. Deaf infants do not make babbling sounds. b. Deaf infants make babbling sounds later than do hearing infants. c. Deaf infants make babbling sounds much sooner than do hearing infants. d. All babies, even deaf babies, babble.
all babies babble
Most babies speak their first recognizable words at: a. 6 months. b. 8 months. c. 10 months. d. 12 months.
What happens when a child is able to speak about 50 words? a. The progression of lang acquisition slow down b. Vocab steadily increases at about 10 words/month c. The progression of lang acquisition increases dramatically. d. The child begins to speak only in verbs
the progression of language acquisition increases dramatically
Which is TRUE of babbling? a. No reinforcement or teaching is necessary. b. Infants must be taught to babble. c. Twin studies are consistent with the idea that babbling is harmful. d. Only infants in industrialized countries babble.
no reinforcement or teaching is necessary
Cultural differences in communication appear to influence: a. whether new talkers say names. b. the sounds that new babies make. c. the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives. d. the use of holophrases.
the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives
The term used to describe an infant's thought process that relies on senses and motor skills is: a. operational intelligence. b. preoperational intelligence. c. adaptation intelligence. d. sensorimotor intelligence.
Primary circular reactions involve: a. an object. b. another person. c. affordances. d. the infant's own body.
the infant's own body
An infant who begins to explore the environment by actively taking independent action is entering the: a. tertiary circular reactions stage. b. secondary circular reactions stage. c. new adaptation and anticipation stage. d. primary circular reactions stage.
tertiary circular reactions stage
According to Piaget, at what age do infants begin to anticipate and solve simple problems by using mental combinations? a. 6 to 12 months b. 12 to 18 months c. 18 to 24 months d. 24 to 36 months
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicates that infants: a. do not respond to child-directed speech. b. have neurons that lack functional electrical activity. c. have memories, goals, and mental combinations in advance of Piaget's stages. d. have "infantile amnesia."
have memories, goals, and mental combinations in advance of Piaget's stages
Recent research on early affordances provides evidence that: a. input and cognitive processing become slower with age. b. input becomes quicker with age, but cognitive processing stays the same. c. input and cognitive processing do not show much change until the child is much older. d. input becomes quicker with age, and cognitive processing advances.
input becomes quicker with age, and cognitive processing advances
Most developmentalists agree that very young infants can remember if: a. motivation is high. b. special measures are taken to aid memory retrieval. c. situations or events are similar to real life. d. All of these answers are correct.
all of the above
3-month-old infants could remember one week later to kick their legs to make a crib mobile move, but could not remember to do it 2 weeks later. This research indicates that: a. memory is intact, but no motivation to kick. b. the research is inconclusive concerning the memory abilities of infants. c. memory is fragile early in life. d. the infants remembered their previous experience.
memory is fragile early in life
When do infants begin learning language? a. before birth b. at birth c. around 2 to 4 months d. at 12 months
The importance of using gestures when speaking to babies is that: a. gestures allow babies to communicate earlier. b. babies do not understand gestures without speech. c. babies should learn a second language. d. gestures cannot be understood by babies.
gestures allow babies to communicate earlier
Once a child's vocabulary reaches about 50 words, it rapidly expands at a rate of _______ per month. a. 10 to 15 words b. 25 to 50 words c. 50 to 100 words d. 100 to 150 words
A single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought is called a: a. holophrase. b. hologram. c. grammar. d. babble.
Word order, prefixes, suffixes, intonation, verb forms, pronouns, negations, prepositions, and articles are called: a. holograms. b. grammar. c. holophrase. d. name explosion.
How does a child learn language? a. Infants are taught language. b. Infants have a natural capacity for language learning. c. Infants are socially programmed to communicate. d. All of these answers could be correct.
all of the above
Who proposed that infants are innately ready to use their minds to understand and speak whatever language is offered? a. Skinner b. Vygotsky c. Bruner d. Chomsky
. At about 6 weeks, an infant expresses happiness in response to a human face by displaying: a. laughter. b. contentment. c. a social smile. d. a cooing sound.
a social smile
When an infant is fearful of strangers, he or she is exhibiting: a. separation anxiety. b. stranger wariness. c. self-awareness. d. situational anxiety.
Self-awareness is a: a. foundation for physical growth. b. realization that one is part of a family. c. realization that one's mind, body, and actions are separate from those of other people. d. None of these answers is correct.
realization that one's mind, body, and actions are separate from those of other people.
Pretending and using the words "I," "me," "mine," and "myself" are evidence that the child has developed: a. self-acceptance. b. self-recognition. c. self-tolerance. d. mistrust of others.
An infant may see his or her own body as associated with the bodies of others because the boundaries between the sensory parts of the cortex are less distinct. This is referred to as: a. cross-model perception. b. synesthesia. c. social connections. d. emotional immaturity.
The theory that connects biosocial with psychosocial development is: a. behaviorism. b. psychoanalytic. c. epigenetic. d. sociocultural.
__________ would trace a person's excessive eating, drinking, or talking to how that person's mother handled his or her urge to suck during infancy. a. Bandura b. Freud c. Bowlby d. Kagan
Satisfying a child's basic needs with care and consistency relates to: a. Erikson's first crisis of life. b. cognitive theory. c. Freud's first stage. d. social learning theory.
Erikson's first crisis of life
Fourteen-month-old Carlos watches his older brother giggle and roll on the floor at SpongeBob on TV. Carlos then laughs and rolls on the floor whenever his brother does. This is an example of: a. social observation. b. social learning. c. a working model. d. learning to be autonomous.
Some Western parents rarely hold their infants except to: a. feed them. b. restrain them to enforce separation. c. put them to bed. d. play with them.
restrain them to enforce separation.
Synchrony between infant and parent becomes _______ frequent and _______ elaborate as time goes on. a. more; more b. more; less c. less; more d. less; less
The experimental practice in which adults stare at their baby and remain expressionless is called: a. the Strange Situation. b. the still-face technique. c. synchrony. d. methods of attachment.
the still-face technique.
The still-face technique: a. shows that babies expect a positive response from their caregivers. b. measures quality of attachment. c. is not useful with babies over 2 months of age. d. teaches babies synchrony.
shows that babies expect a positive response from their caregivers.
An insecurely attached infant is likely to show: a. happiness. b. indifference. c. confidence. d. independence.
Which of the following is one of the key aspects of the Strange Situation? a. an unusual location b. exploration of toys c. a roomful of strangers d. inability to sleep
exploration of toys
An infant's smile upon seeing a person's face normally emerges: a. only if that person has fed the infant. b. at about 6 weeks of age. c. after infants learn to distinguish strangers from nonstrangers. d. only in secure attachment relationships.
at about 6 weeks of age.
When does an infant normally begin to express anger? a. 2 months b. 4 months c. 6 months d. 8 months
Separation anxiety: a. is normal at age 1 but not after age 3. b. is an infant's distress when a caregiver leaves. c. intensifies by age 2 and then usually subsides by age 3. d. All of these answers are correct.
all of the above
A person dressed in an Easter bunny costume approaches 2-year-old Robyn to give her candy. She begins to cry loudly and clings to her mother. Robyn is exhibiting: a. separation anxiety. b. stranger wariness. c. anger. d. separation wariness.
The classic experiment in which babies looked into a mirror after a red dot was placed on their noses provided evidence of self-awareness if the babies: a. touched their noses. b. smiled and stared at the image. c. smiled at the image. d. showed interest in the reflection in the mirror.
touched their noses.
A temperamental adjustment that allows smooth infant-caregiver interaction is called: a. parenting-style adjustment. b. goodness of fit. c. adjustment of temperament. d. accommodation of temperament.
goodness of fit.
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development is: a. oral. b. mouth. c. anal. d. trust versus mistrust.
The toilet-training method in which children would drink their favorite juice, sit on the potty, and be praised when the inevitable occurred is from the: a. social learning theory. b. psychoanalytic theory. c. psychosocial theory. d. behaviorist theory.
What is Erikson's second crisis of life? a. independence b. autonomy versus shame and doubt c. trust versus mistrust d. anal
autonomy versus shame and doubt
A theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture is a(n): a. ethnotheory. b. epigenetic theory. c. psychoanalytic theory. d. learning theory.
A mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant is called: a. synchrony. b. social attachment. c. social referencing. d. timed communication.
The importance of synchrony is that infants learn to: a. develop skills of social interaction. b. connect an internal state with an external expression. c. read others' emotions. d. All of these answers are correct.
all of the above
Albert crawls after his father when his father leaves the room. In doing so, Albert is exhibiting: a. proximity-seeking behavior. b. anxious behavior. c. synchrony. d. goodness of fit.
Which theorist is associated with a laboratory procedure called the Strange Situation? a. Freud b. Ainsworth c. Watson d. Strange
Which attachment pattern involves an infant who continues playing when his or her mother leaves the room and ignores her when she returns? a. secure b. insecure-avoidant c. insecure-resistant d. insecure-disorganized
The body mass index (BMI, the ratio of weight to height): a. is lower at age 5 than at any other age in the life span. b. is generally high at age 6. c. peaks at age 3. d. peaks at age 5.
is lower at age 5 than at any other age in the life span.
A 2004 study of 2- to 4-year-olds from low-income families living in New York City found many children were: a. underweight. b. overweight. c. malnourished. d. just right.
According to the text, what is the most common disease of young children in developed nations? a. diabetes b. asthma c. tooth decay d. obesity
c. tooth decay
When a young child insists that his or her potatoes be placed on a certain part of the dinner plate, he or she is exhibiting: a. the "just-right" phenomenon. b. the "all's well" phenomenon. c. picky eater's syndrome. d. a mental disorder
the "just-right" phenomenon.
The 2-year-old brain weighs ________ percent of what it will weigh in adulthood. a. 25 b. 30 c. 55 d. 75
Another term for lateralization is: a. sidedness. b. ambidextrous. c. amygdala. d. callosum connection.
Which of the following most directly contributes to improved motor coordination in early childhood? a. maturation of the prefrontal cortex b. myelination of the corpus callosum c. decreased hemispheric lateralization d. enhanced perseveration
myelination of the corpus callosum
Which of the following is controlled by the left half of the brain? a. emotional and creative impulses b. cognitive skills c. the left half of the body d. logical reasoning
One of the benefits of the maturation of the prefrontal cortex that occurs from the ages of 2 to 6 is: a. increased impulsiveness. b. increased perseveration. c. more regular sleep. d. improved understanding of facial expressions.
more regular sleep.
The ___________ produces hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body. a. corpus callosum b. hippocampus c. hypothalamus d. amygdala
An example of a gross motor skill is: a. painting a picture. b. buttoning a sweater. c. pumping a swing. d. eating a cookie.
pumping a swing
According to sociocultural theory, children learn gross motor skills best from: a. peers. b. parents. c. teachers. d. television.
The most common cause of death in childhood is: a. cancer. b. diabetes. c. allergic reactions. d. accidents.
Tertiary prevention begins _____ an injury. a. after b. before c. during d. None of these answers is correct.
Failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs is the definition of: a. child maltreatment. b. child abuse. c. child neglect. d. substantiated maltreatment.
By age 6, the average child in a developed nation weighs between _______ pounds and is at least ______ inches tall. a. 35 and 40; 38 b. 35 and 40; 42 c. 40 and 50; 38 d. 40 and 50; 42
40 and 50; 42
The major nutritional deficit in early childhood in DEVELOPED countries is insufficient: a. calories. b. proteins and fats. c. iron, zinc, and calcium. d. carbohydrates.
iron, zinc, and calcium.
The "just-right" phenomenon: a. refers to young children's insistence on routine. b. becomes particularly evident after 6 years of age. c. is a pathological development in a young child. d. is uncommon in children under 6.
refers to young children's insistence on routine.
A child's insistence on routine typically peaks at around age: a. 1. b. 3. c. 6. d. 8.
By age 6 the brain weighs ________ percent of what it will weigh in adulthood. a. 50 b. 75 c. 90 d. 100
The _________ allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain. a. integrative cortex b. central bundle c. corpus callosum d. association area
The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain is: a. associated tasks. b. lateralization. c. integrative processing. d. limbic processing.
Most people: a. are exclusively right-brained. b. are exclusively left-brained. c. use both sides of the brain for all cognitive functions. d. have a relatively unmyelinated corpus callosum.
use both sides of the brain for all cognitive functions.
Which area is said to be the "executive" of the brain? a. prefrontal cortex b. corpus callosum c. occipital cortex d. hypothalamus
Perseveration is the opposite of: a. self-control. b. emotional regulation. c. intelligence. d. impulsiveness.
Environmental hazards such as pollution interfere with the development of ______________. a. language skills b. motor skills c. brain activity d. artistic expression
Which of these statements is consistent with the notion of injury control? a. Accidents are random events. b. Appropriate controls can minimize harm. c. Injuries result from careless parenting or accident-prone children. d. Fate determines the frequency and consequences of accidents
Appropriate controls can minimize harm.
Laws limiting the number of baby aspirins per container are an example of ___________ prevention. a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. unitary
We recognize today that child abuse or maltreatment is: a. usually perpetrated by the child's parents. b. accidental or intentional. c. rare and sudden. d. most often the work of mentally ill stranger
usually perpetrated by the child's parents.
A primary-prevention measure to reduce child abuse would be to: a. remove the child from the home. b. jail the perpetrator. c. have social workers make a home visit. d. decrease financial instability.
decrease financial instability.
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