the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language)
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on seperate conscious and unconscious tracks
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
failing to notice changes in the environment
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24- hour cycle
causes the brains pineal gland to decrease its production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin in the mornings or increase in the evening
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also know as the paradoxical sleep stage because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active.
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus
during brief stage one sleep
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
first in stage 3 and then increasingly in stage 4 lasts about 30 minutes, during which you would be hard to awaken
Sleep Theories and why its necessary
sleeps helps us recuperate
sleep feeds creative thinking
sleep may play a role in growth process
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by uncomfortable sleep attacks
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakings
characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind
according to freud, the remembered story line of a dream
the underlying meaning of a dream
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Why we dream
Wish fufillment-to satisfy our own wishes
information processing- to file away memories
Physiological Function-to develop and preserve neural pathway
Activation-Synthesis Theory- to make sense of neural static
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
compulsive drug craving and use despite adverse consequence
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
opium and there derivatives, such as morphine and heroinin they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions (such as caffeine, nicotine)
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeding up bodily functions and associated energy changes
a powerful addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system with speeded up bodily functions and associated energy and mood changes, over time reduces dopamine levels
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer-term harm to the serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory output
a powerful hallucinogen drug; also known as acid
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers mild hullucinogens.
learning that certain events occur together
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
the view that psychology, should be an objective science that, studies behavior without reference to mental processes
the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally and automatically triggers a response
the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
an originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
the initial stage when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response
a new neutral stimulus can become a new conditioned stimulus. All that is required is for it to become associated with a previously conditioned stimulus
the diminishing responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus, no longer signals an unconditioned stimulus.
the tendency, once a response has conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and the other irrelevant stimuli
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
law of effect
behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
a procedure in which reinforcers such as food gradually guide an animals action toward desired behavior.
any event that strengthens a proceeding response
strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response
any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (something undesirable or unpleasurable)
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing through its association with a primary reinforcer
fixed ratio schedules
reinforce behavior after a set number of responses
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number or responses
reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
an event that decreased the behavior that it follows
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
the desire to behave in certain ways to recieve external reward or avoid threatened punishment
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrival of information
the processing of information into memory system
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
unconscious encoding if incidental information
effortlessly keep track of how many things happen
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
the conscious repetition of information either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can recall what other people around you say.
We retain information better when we rehearse over time.
Serial Position Effect
When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.
the encoding of meaning
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivd imagery and organizational devices
During strong mental engagement
Sleep Stage 1-2
During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who isdaydreaming shows theta activity.
Sleep Stages 3-4
During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps).
Stage 5: REM Sleep
After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state.
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