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was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis
ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other.
was the second president of the United States (1797–1801), (federalist), having earlier served as the first vice president of the United States. An American Founding Father, Adams was a statesman, diplomat, and a leading advocate of American independence from Great Britain; wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas, both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail Adams, as well as to other Founding Fathers.
Was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States; He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university; He became wealthy publishing Almanac and The Pennsylvania Gazette; 1st United States Postmaster General
of 1786 between the United States and Spain guaranteed Spain's exclusive right to navigate the Mississippi River for 20 years. It also opened Spain's European and West Indian seaports to American shipping.
Was an armed uprising that took place in Massachusetts because of financial difficulties brought about by a post-war economic depression, a credit squeeze caused by a lack of hard currency, and fiscally harsh government policies instituted in 1785 to solve the state's debt problems.
was adopted by the Continental Congress in the United States on May 20, 1785; Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the United States; the immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired after the end of the Revolutionary War.
was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States; primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it for authorization or legitimacy the power to take certain actions. For example, enabling acts often establish government agencies to carry out specific government policies in a modern nation.
Was a meeting in 1786 at Annapolis, Maryland, of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that unanimously called for a constitutional convention; Long dissatisfied with the weak Articles of Confederation, Alexander Hamilton of New York played a major leadership role. He drafted its resolution for a constitutional convention, and in doing so brought his longtime desire to have a more powerful, more financially independent federal government one step closer to reality.
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain; James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution.
was an American statesman, political theorist and the fourth President of the United States; He is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights.
was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with worldwide influence; Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State; he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) to explore the new west. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr.
was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a fundamental impact on French history and on modern history worldwide; Experiencing an economic crisis exacerbated by the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the common people of France became increasingly frustrated by the ineptitude of King Louis XVI; fueled radical sentiments and launched the Revolution in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General in May.
In April 1793, "Citizen" Edmond Charles Genet (1763-1834), a French minister, arrived in the United States and passed out letters authorizing Americans to attack British commercial vessels and Spanish New Orleans. Washington regarded these actions as a clear violation of American neutrality and demanded that France recall its minister.
was a treaty between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Great Britain that is credited with averting war, resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the American Revolution, and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain; It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
was an early American statesman, diplomat and veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812; 36th Governor of South Carolina.
was the third Vice President of the United States, he served during President Thomas Jefferson's first term; After serving as a Continental Army officer in the Revolutionary War, Burr became a successful lawyer and politician. He was elected twice to the New York State Assembly, was appointed New York State Attorney General, was chosen as a United States Senator from the state of New York, and reached the apex of his career as Vice President. Burr killed his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. Burr was never tried for the illegal duel, and all charges against him were eventually dropped.
was a diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats that resulted in a limited, undeclared war known as the Quasi-War. U.S. and French negotiators restored peace with the Convention of 1800, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine.
were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War. They were signed into law by President John Adams. No protesting the government? No immigrants allowed in? No freedom of the press; Fines and imprisonment could be used against those who "write, print, utter, or publish . . . any false, scandalous and malicious writing" against the government.
was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Farmers who used their leftover grain and corn in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax; the tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to increase central government power, in particular to fund his policy of assuming the war debt of those states which had failed to pay.
was the 3rd quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 4 to Wednesday, December 7, 1796. It was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing tickets. The ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution made such a result unlikely in the future.
was a treaty between the United States of America and France to settle the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi-War; That there shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and a true and sincere Friendship between the French Republic, and the United States of America; That all prior agreements between the two countries concerning alliance and mutual trade were no longer operative (Article II); That each was to return public ships captured in the war; The free passage for all goods and passports.
was the 4th quadrennial presidential election; It is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800," Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System.
was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a member of the Federalist Party, who served as U.S. Representative from Delaware and U.S. Senator from Delaware; in the U.S. presidential election of 1800. With the vote tied in the Electoral College, it was a group of Federalists led by Bayard who broke the deadlock by agreeing to allow the election of Thomas Jefferson by the House of Representatives.
was a Federal statute to reorganize the federal court system; The Act restructured the circuit courts into six circuits, and assigned one Supreme Court justice to each circuit.
was the fourth Chief Justice of the United States whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches; Previous leader of the Federalist Party.
the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 1831, he founded New York University; also helped found the House Committee on Finance (later the Ways and Means Committee) and often engineered withholding of finances by the House as a method of overriding executive actions to which he objected.
reduced the size of the Supreme Court from six justices to five and eliminated the justices’ circuit duties. To replace the justices, the act created sixteen judgeships for six judicial circuits.
was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland; was impeached for allegedly letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions. Chase was acquitted by the Senate; From 1774 to 1776, Chase was a member of the Annapolis Convention. He represented Maryland at the Continental Congress till 1778; The involvement of Chase in an attempt to corner the flour market, using insider information gained through his position in the Congress, resulted in his not being returned to the Continental Congress and damaging his reputation.
was the first of two wars fought between the United States and the Northwest African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States; October 1803 captured USS Philadelphia intact, and its captain, William Bainbridge, and all officers and crew were taken ashore and held as hostages; In agreeing to pay a ransom of $60,000 for the American prisoners, the Jefferson administration drew a distinction between paying tribute and paying ransom.
was the acquisition by the U.S. in 1803, of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana. The U.S. paid 50 million francs plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs, for a total sum of 15 million dollars (less than 3 cents per acre) for the Louisiana territory.
was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for an assembly at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The Virginia Plan was notable for its role in setting the overall agenda for debate in the convention and, in particular, for setting forth the idea of population-weighted representation in the proposed national legislature.
was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States. He was the first Chancellor of New York, then the highest judicial officer in the State; He was known as "The Chancellor", after the office he held for 25 years; he administered the presidential oath of office to George Washington at Federal Hall in New York City.
was an American attorney, the seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General.
was the fifth President of the United States; Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, the third of them to die on Independence Day, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation.
was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention; The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan, which called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population; the unicameral legislature with one vote per state was inherited from the Articles of Confederation.
Some regard him as one of the most versatile, skilled and influential diplomats in European history, and some believe that he was a traitor, betraying in turn, the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution, Napoleon, and the Restoration. He is also notorious for leaving the Catholic Church after ordination to the priesthood and consecration to the episcopacy.
was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each state would have two representatives in the upper house.
was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe; As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815; the first monarch of France bearing the title emperor since the reign of Charles the Fat
which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman; Since slaves could not vote, slaveholders would thus have the benefit of increased representation in the House and the Electoral College. The final compromise of counting "all other persons" as only three-fifths of their actual numbers reduced the power of the slave states relative to the original proposals, but increased it over the northern position.
was issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806, following the French success against Prussia at the Battle of Jena. The decree forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe. His plan was to unite the European countries against Britain buy it failed.
The Milan Decree was issued by Napoleon I of France to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806, which had initiated the Continental System. This system was the basis for his plan to defeat the British by waging economic warfare. The Milan Decree stated that no European country was to trade with the United Kingdom; The decree authorized French warships and privateers to capture neutral ships sailing from any British port or from any country that was occupied by British forces. It also declared that any ships that submitted to search by the Royal Navy on the high seas were to be considered lawful prizes if captured by the French.
refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787.
is a type of legislation in many countries, typically those in the Commonwealth of Nations. In the United Kingdom this legislation is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council); a representative of the government (generally a cabinet minister or the Lord President of the Council) reads out batches of Orders in Council drafted by the government in front of the Queen, who, after each order, says 'Approved'. They then come into effect.
is the collective name given to six statutes passed by the United States Congress in 1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834. The Act regulates commerce between Native Americans and non-Indians. The most notable provisions of the Act regulate the inalienability of aboriginal title in the United States.
was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars; The embargo was imposed in response to violations of U.S. neutrality, in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the European navies.
in 1789, Congress created the War Department as a civilian agency to administer the field army under the president (as commander in chief) and the secretary of war.
is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. It was established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue; The first Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton.
was introduced in the United States House of Representatives on December 19, 1809, by Nathaniel Macon from the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Relations; it prohibited public vessels of France or England, or private vessels owned by subjects of either power from entering American ports; forbade the importation of goods from either country or its colonies; and provided that whenever either country should revoke or modify her edicts so that they would cease to violate the neutral commerce of the United States, the President of the United States should issue a proclamation announcing the cessation of the prohibitions of the act towards the revoking power.
in the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the U.S. federal judiciary, Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court," and such inferior courts as Congress saw fit to establish.
describes a conflict in the Old Northwest between the United States and an American Indian confederacy led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh; Tecumseh's War essentially continued into the War of 1812.
is a term used in politics for someone favoring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
As a leading war hawk in 1812, he favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation to war in the War of 1812.
was a 32-month military conflict between the United States on one side, and on the other Great Britain, its colonies and its Indian allies in North America; for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas.
was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom.
Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power.
the political principles and ideas held by or associated with Alexander Hamilton that center around a belief in a strong central government, broad interpretation of the federal constitution, encouragement of an industrial and commercial economy, and a general distrust of the political capacity or wisdom of the common man.
the political principles and ideas held by Thomas Jefferson or later associated with his name and centering around a belief in states' rights, a strict construction of the federal Constitution, confidence in the political ability of the common man, and an agrarian as opposed to an industrial or commercial economy.
During Washington's first term as president, Alexander Hamilton, introduced a series of bills to create an American financial system. The plan called for the federal government to assume the Revolutionary War debts of the states. This would tie the states more tightly to the federal government and give creditors (the people who lent money) an incentive to preserve the government. The plan also called for the establishment of a national bank, which would further strengthen the government and create strong national credit.
It was Alexander Hamilton's plan of that the federal government pay its full and assume the remaining debt of the states in order to place the government on a sounder financial footing.
refers to the act of taking men into a navy by force and with or without notice. It was used by the Royal Navy, beginning in 1664 and during the 18th and early 19th centuries.
was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
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