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Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of
The central nervous system consists of
The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the
Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the
The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables that we call
Neural stimulation that exceeds a threshold triggers
an action potential.
Dendrites are branching extensions of
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
A synapse is a(n)
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
autonomic nervous system
The master gland of the endocrine system is the
An axon is
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
The part of the central nervous system that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the
The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
You feel the pain of a sprained ankle when ________ relay(s) messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of
Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps on his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of
a severed spinal cord.
A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers
more neurons to fire, and to fire more often.
The two divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the
somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
The function of dendrites is to
receive incoming signals from other neurons.
Although phrenology incorrectly suggested that bumps on the skull revealed a person's character traits, phrenology did succeed in focusing attention on
the localization of function.
You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the
sympathetic nervous system.
An action potential is generated by the movement of
Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.
Neural networks refer to
interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is
an all-or-none response.
The hypothalamus influences the ________ to send messages to the ________.
pituitary; endocrine glands
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the
autonomic nervous system.
Reuptake refers to the
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
Dr. Wolski conducts research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of
the biological perspective.
Jason's intensely uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his body's normal production of
The release of hormones by the adrenal glands is most likely to trigger
the fight-or-flight response.
A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)
The part of the brainstem that helps to coordinate movements is called the
Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
The reticular formation is located in the
The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
A neural system at the border of the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the
The amygdala consists of emotion-linked neural clusters in the
Which limbic system structure regulates thirst and body temperature?
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n)
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)
MRI scans have revealed that some patients with schizophrenia have unusually enlarged
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the
Information from higher brain regions is transmitted to the medulla through the
Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to
lapse into a coma.
In addition to coordinating voluntary movement, the ________ enables nonverbal learning and memory.
Conscious information processing is LEAST likely to be required for the automatic physical survival functions regulated by the
Which part of the limbic system plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's
A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of
The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
James Olds and Peter Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
Research participants preferred specific vacation destinations they had simply imagined themselves experiencing if the imagination process followed consumption of a drug that increased levels of
The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the
The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
The association areas are located in
all four lobes.
The most extensive regions of the brain are involved in higher mental functions such as memory and reasoning. These regions are called the
The classic case of railroad worker Phineas Gage best illustrated that frontal lobe damage can
alter one's personality.
The capacity of a brain area to reorganize in response to damage is known as brain
The process of forming new neurons within the brain is called
The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that
transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres.
Those whose corpus callosum is surgically severed are said to be patients with
When a person speaks, brain waves and bloodflow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the
Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ________ lobes.
Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce
People who suffer partial paralysis will sometimes obstinately claim they can move a paralyzed limb if they have suffered damage to the
right cerebral hemisphere.
Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?
The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with the activation of areas in their
Deaf people who use sign language typically
process language in their left cerebral hemisphere.
The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the ________ lobes.
In a clinical trial of a brain-computer interface with paralyzed humans, a 25-year-old man constructed shapes on a computer screen by activating neurons in his
The visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates
People's moral judgments are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to
solve arithmetic problems.
The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.
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