-13 states intended to be independent
-alliance of sovereign states for mutual economic/military defense
-national government had little power
-13 states, created on November 15, 1777... Virginia and Maryland couldn't decide
-finally ratified on March 1st, 1781
-constitution formed in 1789
- James Madison and his friends persuaded the Virginia assembly to recommend a convention to explore the creation of a unified system of “commercial regulations.” Congress supported the idea.
- Delegates from 5 states gathered in Annapolis, Maryland. The turnout was small but they advised Congress to hold a second meeting in Philadelphia to consider the situation of the US, to devise a plan as they see necessary to carry out the constitution of the Federal Government capable of the urgencies of the Union. Congress authorized a grand convention to gather in May 1787.
- Reaction to Shay’s Rebellion, which was a rebellion over taxes and debts and was quite violent. The rich saw this and thought that this could happen in their state; and they didn't want that. They realized that the government was powerless to do anything about it under the AoC, and called for a stronger central government. so the Philadelphia Convention was called to create the Constitution.
Slaves being counted as 3/5th is much worse as being counted at a whole
Congress had NO right to interfer with slave trade. before 1808
Slave owners had the right to recover escaped slaves, even if they were in a different state
2.gifted political thinkers (Washington, Franklin, Madison, Hamilton)
3. Madison, Hamilton, Jay wrote Federalist Papers (essays explaining constitution)
- They were critics of the Con. who were concerned that it included no specific provisions to protect natural and civil rights.
- They stood for the federation, alliance, of the states, not centralized national gov.
- They were deeply suspicious of political power, and they warned that public officials, however selected, would be constantly scheming to expand their authority.
- They felt the larger the republic, the greater the opportunity for political corruption, since local voters couldn’t know what their reps in a distant national capital were doing.
- They demanded direct, personal contact with their reps.
- The elected officials should reflect the character of their constituents as closely as possible.
- They believed the Con. favored persons wealthy enough to have forged a reputation that extended beyond a single community.
- They thought that since the distance was so great between the people and their reps there’s no chance of a farmer or planter being elected.
- They accepted, easier than Fed., a liberal marketplace where ordinary citizens competed as equals with the rich and well-born.
- They believed it was best for the public to let anyone pursue their own private interests.
- Federalists believed in a central national gov.
- Con. was ratified in NY by a tally of 30 to 27, in Mass. by 187 to 168, and in Virginia by 89 to 79.
- 1st Delaware Dec 8, 1787; 2nd central/west Penn Dec 12, 1787; 3rd New Jersey Dec 18, 1787; 4th north west Georgia Jan 2, 1788; 5th most of Conn. Jan 9, 1788; 6th west/cape/some east Mass (south corner Maine, part of Mass.). Feb 16, 1788; 7th most of Maryland April 26, 1788; 8th some south/west South Carolina May 23, 1788; 9th most of New Hampshire; 10th west/north/some east Virginia June 25, 1788; 11th Long Island NY July 26, 1788; 12th west/south central/some east North Carolina Nov 21, 1788; 13th none of Rhode Island.
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