Three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
The tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated, such that they do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks.
The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified (such as when they are in a crowd)
Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual.
A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner.G
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
Great Person Theory
The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
Set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them.
Inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
Contingency Theory of Leadership
The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group
Concerned more with getting the job done than with workers' feelings and relationships
Concerned more with workers' feelings and relationships
A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
A means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did on the previous trialP
Public Goods Dilemma
A social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good.
A social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in moderation but will disappear if overused
A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
A solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests; each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but are important to the other
A hostile or negative atitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely in their membership in that group
A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members
Unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group
The perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are.
The tendency to see relationships between events that are actually unrelated.
Ultimate Attribution Error
The tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people
The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotypeB
Blaming the victim
The tendency to blame individuals for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place.
Realistic Conflict Theory
The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination
The tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
Racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority or people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
Sexist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance
Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes
The situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them
A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class
People's specific plans about where, when, and how they will fulfill a goal
The process by which people notice and pay attention to information in the environment; because people cannot perceive everything that is happening around them, they acquire only a subset of the information available in the environment
The process by which people store in memory information they have acquired from the environment
The process by which people recall information stored in their memories
The fact that people are better at recognizing faces of their own race than those of other races
The process whereby memories of an event become distorted by information encountered after the event occurred
The process whereby people try to identify the source of their memories
A mchine that measures people's physiological responses
Recollections of a past event, such as sexual abuse, that had been forgotten or repressed.
False Memory Syndrome
Remembering a past traumatic experience that is objectively false but nevertheless accepted as true
They hypothesis that the threat of legal punishment causes people to refrain from criminal activity as long as the punishment is perceived as relatively severe, certain, and swift
People's judgements about the fairness of the procedures used to determine outcomes, such as whether they are innocent or guilty of a crime
Want to see the other 50 Flashcards in Test 3: Ch.9,13,SPA 1, SPA 3?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!