What is the purpose of synthetase in the TCA cycle?
it is the site of ATP production/consumption
What is oxidized in the TCA cycle?
What is the result of the TCA cycle?
3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP/Acetyl-CoA
How many Acetyl-CoA come from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is the only membrane associated enzyme in the TCA cycle?
In which step is ATP produced in the TCA cycle?
What is the first substrate in the TCA cycle?
ACETYL CoA DUH.
What are the three roles of DNA
2. Pass on genetic information
3. control and coordinate metabolism of the cell
Where is DNA's polarity found?
From the phosphate on the 5' and the hydroxyl on the 3' end.
What did Roger Kornberg discover?
Discovered the direction of DNA synthesis is 5'--->3', but the template is read 3'-->5'
purified a bacterial enzyme that incorporates radioactive nucleotides into new DNA
What 3 factors are required for DNA activity?
-DNA polymer, double stranded helix with a 3' hydroxyl group
What are the 3 kinds of Metabolites are which are most abundant?
1. DNA dependent, DNA polymerase (most abundant)
2. DNA dependent, RNA polymerase (2nd most abundant)
3. RNA dependent, DNA polymerase (least abundant)
What did Okasaki discover?
solved riddle of direction of translation occurs on the opposing strand. The leading strand replicates continually, while the lagging strand replicates discontinually in small fragments called Okasaki fragments.
Whats the difference between semi-conservative model and semi-continuous replication?
Semi-conservative model is a vague model as to how DNA replicates and how parental cell genes are distributed to daughter cells.
Semi- continuous replication is observed in the lagging strand through Okasaki fragments.
Which ways do the leading and lagging strands replicate in relation to the ORI and the replication fork?
The leading strand always goes towards the fork, and away from the ORI
The lagging strand goes away from the replication fork and towards the ORI
What does helices have to do in order to separate the DNA strands?
What is the most important replication enzyme in the elongation of the DNA
DNA polymerase III
All polymerases have what kind of exo-nuclease activity?
Degradation from 3'-->5'
What does mutations allow for?
What are the 4 kinds of DNA repair?
1. Nucleotide Excision Repair
2. Base Excision Repair
3. Mismatch Repair
4. Double strand Breakage Repair
How does the cell perform a Nucleoside Excision Repair?
2 ways: replication coupled pathway and global pathway.
Replication coupled pathway proofreads the DNA for errors
The global pathway scans the DNA for errors. It corrects them by several proteins.
What are the 5 proteins used in the global pathway base excision repair that can fix mistakes in DNA nucleotides?
1. XPC: scan DNA for problems
2. XPD/XPB open DNA (function as helicase)
3. XPG cuts out 3' end, XPF cuts at 5' end
4. DNA polymerase delta and epsilon fill in nucleotides
5. DNA ligase reanneals (reconnects them)
What are the proteins involved in performing a Base Excision Repair?
glycolase- breaks glycosol bond
AP endonuclease- breaks sugar and phosphate bond to get to bad section
DNa polymerase beta cuts out bad base pairs and puts in new ones (plays a phosphodiesterase role)
What is a mismatch pair and how is it fixed?
a geometrical disturbance in the DNA helix that is recognized by DNA polymerase
Identifies the parent strand by a more highly methylated group and then proceeds to fix the wrong base to match up with the corresponding parents nucleotide pair.
What is double strand breakage repair and how is it fixed?
When a strand of DNA is split into two pieces due to radiation, trauma, etc...
The strands can perform two methods: Non-homologous end joining where two strands are held together by complex proteins DNA-Pkcs and Ku
Or genetic recombination, which repairs the lesion in the helix
Compare DNA form in the Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Pro- cyclic, DNA, double stranded, 1 ORI
Euk- linear, double stranded, have many ARS (automatic replication sequences)
What proteins are analogous in Pro/Euk DNA for unwinding the helix in cell replication?
Cdc6 and Cdtl proteins in Euk that both work to load unwinding enzyme
MCM is what unwinds DNA in Euk
DNaA, DNaB, DNaC=Cdc6, Cdtl and MCM
What two proteins are analogous for relieving tension in the coil of the helix?
Gyrase in Prokaryotes
Topioisomerase in Eukaryotes
What proteins are analogous for exonuclease activity in Pro and Euk? What direction do they run in?
DNA poly I,II,II and DNA poly delta, epsilon, and beta
Both run in the 3'-->5' direction
What is the role of DNA ligase in Euk?
Joins together Okasaki fragments
What proteins are analogous to prevent rewinding in the helix?
SSB proteins in Pro
RPA's in Euk
What kind of Metabolite is the RNA primer in Eukaryotes?
"DNA dependant RNA polymerase"
Whats the difference between the primers in Pro and Euk?
Pro- RNA only
Euk- DNA & RNA primer
What kind of metabolite elongates the DNA in prokaryotes through Polymerase III?
DNA dependant, DNA polymerase
What proteins are analogous for removing primers?
DNA poly I (which also has a 5'-->3' exonuclease activity) and FEN-1/RNaseH1 in Euk
How is DNA "threaded" through the machinery of replication?
PCNA and RFC, which the structure remains stationary
What process breaks down fatty acids to supply Acetyl-CoA, FADH2, and NADH?
What process can be used to supply NAD+ to GAP dehydrogenase in glycolysis?
What is the function of O2 in oxidative phosphorylation?
Terminal electron acceptor
What kind of gradients are created in chloroplasts and mitochondria by the accumulation of H+?
Chloroplasts- primarily a pH gradient
Mitochondria- voltage gradient (this is because of the porins in the outer membrane of the mitochondria. If a pH gradient were to accumulate, acid condition could leak out of the mitochondria, acidifying the cell.
What is required for Electron Transport Systems?
-mitochondrial membranes which reversible rxns can occur
-gateway to entering electron transport system
What is the practical and theoretical yield for NADH and FADH2?
NADH- Prac- 2.5 ATP
Theo 3 ATP
FADH2 Prac-1.5 ATP, Theo 2 ATP
What protein in photosynthesis is analogous to cytochrome C in mitochondria?
What is an important difference between mitochondrial ETS and Chloroplast ETS?
Mitochondrial ETS contains pumps. These contain active transport systems that transport molecules against concentration gradients
What protein complex in photosynthesis is analogous to the complex cytochrome-ubiquinol bc1 in mitochondria?
How many electrons are produced by NADH and FADH2 in the ETS?
NADH- 10 electrons
FADH2- 6 electrons
In the ATP synthase, how is ATP formed?
The delta subunit spins around and interacts with the beta subunits. The gamma subunit causes conformational changes in the beta subunits and generates energy through Le Chauters principle.
What is the role of the alpha component in the ATP synthase?
structural component of catalytic head
What is the function of the beta subunits of the ATP synthase?
catalytic head, substrate bonds to these sites and this is where the chemistry is catalyzed.
What is the function of the delta portion of the ATP synthase?
holds the catalytic head onto the body portion of the synthase
What is the function of the gamma units of the ATP synthase?
act as a spindle top that controls the actions of the c components, also interacts with beta subunits to generate ATP
What is the function of the C subunit in the ATP synthase?
acts as a wheel that spins around to generate a force
What is the function of the epsilon subunit in the ATP synthase?
controls the action of the "spindle" section of the synthase
Want to see the other 53 Flashcards in Test #3 Flashcards?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!