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Which statement about the major pathways of photosynthesis is FALSE?
A) The first pathway (the light reactions) captures light energy and produces ATP and NADPH
B) Both pathways stop in the dark
C) The second pathway (the Calvin cycle) uses the products of the first pathway and CO2 to produce sugars
D) The second pathway is also known as the dark reactions because none of its reactions use light directly
B) Both pathways stop in the dark
Which statement is CORRECT?
A) Chloroplasts and mitochondria both produce ATP through chemiosmosis
B) Mitochondria use an electron transport chain to make ATP while chloroplasts use carbon fixation to make ATP
C) Animal cells have mitochondria and no chloroplasts; plant cells have chloroplasts and no mitochondria
D) Oxygen is released by the Calvin cycle during photosynthesis
As electrons are passed through the system of electron carriers associated with photosystem II, they lose energy. This energy is used by the plant most directly to:
A) to establish and maintain a proton gradient.
B) to excite electrons in photosystem I.
C) convert NADP+ to NADPH
D) generate heat.
5' TCATACTACTA 3'
If the DNA strand above were used as a
template for replication, which of the
following would be produced?
A) 3' AGTATGATGAT 5'
B) 5' AGUAUGAUGAU 3'
C) 3' AGUAUGAUGAU 5'
D) 5' TCATACTACTA 3'
How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic codons compare?
A) The translation of codons is mediated by tRNAs in eukaryotes, but translation requires no intermediate
molecules such as tRNAs in prokaryotes.
B) Prokaryotic codons usually have different bases than those of eukaryotes.
C) Prokaryotic codons usually specify different amino acids than those of eukaryotes.
D) Codons in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
code for the same amino acids.
D) Codons in prokaryotes and eukaryotes code for the same amino acids.
Extracellular glucose inhibits transcription of
the lac operon by _____.
A) weakening the binding of repressor to the operator
B) strengthening the binding of repressor to the operator
C) reducing the levels of cAMP in the cell
D) increasing the levels of cAMP in the cell
Which is a protein?
Which modification is least likely to alter the rate at which a DNA fragment moves through a gel during electrophoresis?
A) decreasing the length of the DNA fragment
B) increasing the length of the DNA fragment
C) altering the nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment
D) neutralizing the negative charges within the DNA fragment
Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged from 3 to 6 picograms per nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle did the nucleus contain 6 picograms of DNA?
A) G1 D) M
B) G0 E) G2
Which of the following does not occur during mitosis?
A) separation of homologous chromosomes
B) separation of sister chromatids
C) condensation of the chromosomes
D) spindle formation
You illuminate some algae with light passed through a prism, exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light (purple, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red). You then add aerobic bacteria and allow them to grow. Which of the following would you expect to see?
A) The bacteria would grow equally well in all areas.
B) The bacteria would grow best in areas illuminated with yellow light.
C) The bacteria would not be able to grow at all.
D) The bacteria would grow best in areas illuminated by green light.
E) Bacteria would not grow well in areas illuminated by green light.
Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that material can easily leak across the membrane. This will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
A) the synthesis of ATP
B) the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll
C) the splitting of water
D) the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I
E) the reduction of NADP+
Which of the following sequences is most
likely to be cut by a restriction enzyme?
If the DNA code for an amino acid is AGT, then the anticodon on the tRNA would be:
A) TCA B) AGU
C) UCA D) AGT
Which of the following types of mutation, resulting in an error in the mRNA just after the AUG start of translation, is likely to have the most serious effect on the polypeptide product?
A) a deletion of two nucleotides
B) an insertion of a codon
C)a substitution of the first nucleotide of a GGG codon
D) a deletion of a codon
E) a substitution of the third nucleotide in an ACC codon
The expression of many genes is tightly regulated but some genes are expressed at roughly constant rates. Which of the following genes would you predict to be constitutively (constantly) expressed?
A) genes involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid tryptophan
B) genes involved in the transport of the sugar lactose
C) genes involved in protein synthesis
D) genes involved in DNA replication
CAP is said to be a positive regulator of the lac operon because _____.
A) CAP binds the operator
B) CAP binds cAMP
C) CAP prevents binding of the repressor to the operator
D) extracellular glucose levels influence the ability of CAP to bind to the CAP binding site
E) CAP binding to the operator increases the frequency of transcription
How would would be the effect of a mutation that interferes with the function of the helicase enzyme?
A) Replication will require a DNA template from another source.
B) No replication fork will be formed.
C) Replication will occur via RNA polymerase alone.
D) More errors will be made during replication.
E) Replication will result in the formation of small fragments being produced instead of long continuous strands.
5' TCATACTACTA 3'
4) If the DNA strand above were used as a template for transcription, which of the following would be produced?
A) 5' TCATACTACTA 3'
B) 3' AGTATGATGAT 5'
C) 5' AGUAUGAUGAU 3'
D) 3' AGUAUGAUGAU 5'
The circle at the top of the figure above shows a diploid nucleus with two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short, in a cell that is not dividing. Which of the lettered circles shows a cell with the correct chromosomal condition for one daughter nucleus after telophase of mitosis?
Which statement about the light reactions of photosynthesis is FALSE?
A) Photosystems I and II are linked by a chain of electron carriers that is similar to that found in mitochondria.
B) Photosystems I and II are dissolved in the stroma of the chloroplast.
C) Chlorophyll absorbs light best in the red and blue wavelengths.
D) Protons diffuse down their concentration gradient to make ATP.
E) In Photosystem II, water is oxidized to form H+ ions, O2, and electrons.
You provide labelled thymine to a cell that is actively dividing. What would expect to see if the cell replicates once in the presence of this labelled base?
A) Both strands of DNA in both daughter cells would be labelled.
B) Neither strand of DNA in either daughter cell would be labelled.
C) One strand of DNA in each daughter cell would be labelled.
D) Both strands of DNA in one daughter cell and neither strand of DNA in the other daughter cell would be labelled.
The final electron accepters(s) associated with photosystem I is:
A) CO2 B) oxygen
C) water D) NADP+
What is the direct result of energy absorption by chlorophyll in photosystem I or II?
A) An electron is excited.
B) The Calvin cycle fixes a molecule of CO2.
C) ATP is synthesized.
D) Electrons are stripped from NADPH.
During translation, a codon is read to bring in
a new amino acid in the ___ in the ribosome.
A) P site B) operon
C) E site D) A site
Full induction of the lac operon occurs when:
A) lactose levels are high and glucose levels are low
B) lactose levels are low and glucose levels are low
C) lactose levels are high and glucose levels are high
D) lactose levels are low and glucose levels are high
Which is a nucleotide sequence?
Which of the following best describes the complete sequence of steps occurring during every cycle of PCR?
1. The primers hybridize to the target DNA.
2. The mixture is heated to a high temperature to denature the double- stranded target DNA.
3. Fresh DNA polymerase is added.
4. DNA polymerase extends the primers to make a copy of the target DNA.
Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis?
A) to allow the chromosomes to fit within the nuclear envelope
B) to increase their potential energy
C) to provide for the structure of the centromere
D) to allow the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled and breaking
E) to allow the sister chromatids to remain attached
If cytokinesis failed during cell division, this will result in
A) cells that are unusually small.
B) cells lacking nuclei.
C) destruction of chromosomes.
D) cells with more than one nucleus.
E) cell cycles lacking an S phase.
Plants photosynthesize only in the light. Plants respire
A) in the dark only.
B) in the light only.
C) both in light and dark.
D) only when excessive light energy induces photorespiration.
E) never–they get their ATP from photophosphorylation.
In one experiment you find that a chloroplast produces mostly ATP and little NADPH. In a second experiment the same chloroplasts produce roughly equal amounts of ATP and NADPH. Which of the following could best explain this difference?
A) Less CO2 was available for the chloroplasts for the first experiment
B) Less oxygen was available for the chloroplasts for the first experiment
C) The chloroplasts used mostly linear electron flow in the first experiment
D) The chloroplasts used mostly cyclic electron flow in the first experiment
E) The first experiment used red light while the second experiment used green light
The length of DNA that codes fora gene is usually longer than the mRNA molecule actually used for translation. This is because:
A bases are added to the tail of the primary transcript
B the regulatory regions (introns) of the gene are not transcribed
C post- transcriptional modification removes the exons
D post- transcriptional modification removes the introns
E) Both Bam HI- cut and Bcl I- cut DNAs would be ligated with no preference for which fragment is ligated to which other.
The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms. From this, one can logically assume which of the following?
A) The same codons in different organisms translate into the different amino acids.
B) All organisms produce the same sets of proteins.
C) A gene from an organism can theoretically be expressed by any other organism.
D) Different organisms have different numbers of different types of amino acids
In negative control of transcription, a gene is activated when:
A) an activator protein binds to DNA
B) a repressor protein binds to DNA
C) an activator protein is removed from DNA
D) a repressor protein is removed from DNA
A biochemist isolates, purifies, and combines in a test tube a variety of molecules needed for DNA replication. When she adds some DNA to the mixture, replication occurs, but each DNA molecule consists of a normal strand paired with numerous segments of DNA a few hundred nucleotides long. What has she probably left out of the mixture?
A) DNA ligase B) primase
C) nucleotides D) Okazaki fragments
E) DNA polymerase
Suppose you are provided with an actively dividing culture of E. coli bacteria to which radioactive thymine has been added. What would happen if a cell replicates once in the presence of this radioactive base?
A) DNA in both daughter cells would be radioactive.
B) One of the daughter cells, but not the other, would have radioactive DNA.
C) Neither of the two daughter cells would be radioactive.
D) One half of all fo the bacterial would have radioactive DNA.
The circle at the top of the figure above shows a diploid nucleus with two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short, in a cell that is not dividing. Which of the lettered circles shows a cell with the correct chromosomal condition for one a cell in prometaphase of mitosis?
Which of the following is an end product of the Calvin cycle?
A) a three carbon sugar
Which molecule is NOT correctly matched with its function during metabolism and/or photosynthesis:
A) CO2: produced through the breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration.
B) H2O: produced when replacing the lost electrons from chlorophyll in photosystem II.
C) CO2: used to create glucose in the light- independent reactions.
D) O2: used accept electrons from the electron transport chain.
The reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O2) take place in
A) the Calvin cycle alone.
B) the light reactions alone.
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle.
Which of the following is associated with
BOTH replication and transcription?
A) DNA template
C) DNA polymerase
D) RNA polymerase
E) base- pairing between A and U.
The goal of the polymerase chain reaction is
A) to duplicate all of the DNA in a cell in preparation for cell division
B) to create many copies of a specific DNA sequence
C) to create many copies of a messenger RNA molecules
D) to correct errors in DNA replication
E) to speed up protein synthesis
When a DNA molecule is replicated before mitosis the result is
A) two DNA molecules, each with one strand of original DNA and one strand of newly made DNA.
B) two DNA molecules, one of which has all of the original DNA molecule, while the other has all new DNA
C) two DNA molecules consisting of a mixture of old DNA, new DNA, and RNA
D) two DNA molecules in which each DNA strand in each molecule is a mixture of the original DNA and of
Which of these occur in the nucleus?
A) transcription and translation
B) DNA replication and transcription
C) DNA replication only
D) DNA replication, transcription and translation
E) transcription only
During G2 of the eukaryotic cell cycle:
A) the centrosome is duplicated and the chromosomes prepare to condense.
B) the cell contains a single copy of the organism's genome.
C) the spindle apparatus attaches to the kinetochores of the chromosomes, preparing to pull apart the sister
D) the DNA is replicated.
All of the following are involved in DNA replication, EXCEPT:
A) DNA polymerase
D) messenger RNA
E) chromosomal DNA
A plant is kept in an airtight, sterile chamber with water, soil, and and given light for 12 hours a day. Which of the following would you expect to see?
A) O2 levels would remain constant when the light was on and when it was off.
B) O2 levels would increase when the light was on and remain constant when the light was off.
C) O2 levels would increase when the light was on and decrease when the light was off.
D) O2 levels would increase both when the light was on and when it was off.
Which events occur during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
A) Fixation of carbon dioxide, release of oxygen, synthesis of glucose.
B) Oxidation of water, reduction of NADP+ , formation of ATP.
C) Release of oxygen, fixation of carbon dioxide, hydrolysis of ATP.
D) Oxidation of water, reduction of NADP+, hydrolysis of ATP.
E) Fixation of carbon dioxide, reduction of NADP+ , formation of ATP
A single base- pair deletion within an exon in the middle of a protein- coding gene would have what
A) Interfere with Poly- A tail addition to the mRNA.
B) Alter the reading frame leading to a different polypeptide.
C) Prevent tRNAs from adding amino acids to the polypeptide.
D) Interfere with binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter.
The ratio of __________ in DNA is 1:1.
A) adenine to guanine
B) cytosine to guanine
C) thymine to guanine
D) adenine to uracil
If an mRNA sequence is 5'- UCAGCCGUC- 3'
what is the sequence of the DNA template
A) 5'- AGTCGGCAG- 3'
B) 3'- AGTCGGCAG- 5'
C) 5'- TCAGCCGTC- 3'
D) 3'- TCAGCCGTC- 5'
3' TACCGAGGCATGCAGCTCAG 5'
5' CGTACG 3'
16) What would be produced if DNA polymerase
and nucleotides were added to the DNA
molecule shown above?
A) 3' TACCGAG 5'
B) 5' CGTACG 3'
C) 5' TCGAGTC 3'
D) 5' ATGGCAC 3'
E) 3' AGCTCAG 5'
Identify the template for leading strand synthesis in the figure above.
Which diagram shows the correct alignment of two non- homologous chromosomes during metaphase of mitosis?
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy occurs during;
A) Calvin Cycle
C) light independent reactions
D) light- dependent reactions
What is the direct source of electrons used in the Calvin cycle to reduce carbon dioxide to sugars and other organic molecules?
A) NADPH B) oxygen
C) ATP D) NADH
How are the light- dependent and independent reactions of photosynthesis related?
A) Products of the light- independent reactions are used in the light- dependent reactions.
B) They are not related.
C) Products of light- dependent reactions are used in light- independent reactions.
D) The light- independent reactions take place in the chloroplasts while the light- dependent reactions take place in the cytoplasm.
During DNA replication:
A) one parental strand must be degraded to allow the other strand to be copied.
B) the parental strands come back together after the passage of the replication fork.
C) a replication bubble at an origin of replication has one replication fork.
D) the parental strands must separate so that both can be copied.
A frameshift mutation could result from:
A) insertion or deletion of a base
B) a base deletion only
C) a base addition only
D) a base substitution only
E) deletion of three consecutive bases
Which of the following is NOT associated with transcription?
A) DNA polymerase
C) DNA template
E) RNA polymerase
The specific function of restriction enzymes in genetic engineering is to:
A) cut DNA molecules at sequence- specific sites
B) join DNA fragments
C) carry foreign DNA that is to be studied
D) replicate specific DNA sequences.
Duplicated chromosomes are NOT found during which stage of the cell cycle?
A) G1 B) G2
C) S D) Prophase
Which statement about mitosis is FALSE?
A) Homologous chromosomes separate
B) Sister chromatids separate
C) duplicated chromosomes line up at the cell's equator
D) the nuclear envelope forms during telophase
What is the relationship between any two strands of DNA in a DNA molecule?
A) They are a pair of sister chromatids.
B) They have identical base sequences.
C) One was the template for the synthesis of the other.
D) They are connected to each other by sugar- phosphate bonds.
E) An A base on one always pairs with a G base on the other.
Which statement comparing the biochemical processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration is FALSE ?
A) Both occur in organelles with complex systems of internal membranes.
B) ATP synthesis in both relies on the chemiosmosis involving the pumping of protons through a membrane.
C) Both involve passing electrons between molecules in a series of oxy- redox reactions that release energy.
D) The initial source of electrons in both is from high- energy food molecules.
E) Oxygen is an end- product of photosynthesis and carbon dioxide is an end- product of respiration.
Which statement most correctly describes how green plants use gas in the absence of any light energy?
A) O2 is used in cell respiration which takes place only when there is no light for photosynthesize.
B) CO2 is used in photosynthesis which occurs constantly in green plants.
C) O2 is used in cell respiration which occurs constantly in green plants.
D) CO2 is used in photosynthesis which takes place in green plants even in the absence of light energy.
E) CO2 is used in cell respiration which takes place constantly in green plants.
If DNA ligase did not function , how would this interfere with the replication of DNA?
A) Prevent the formation of phosphate bridges between Okazaki fragments
B) Prevent primase from synthesizing an RNA primer
C) Cause DNA polymerase to add nucleotides in the 3ʹ′ to 5ʹ′ direction
D) Prevent unwinding of DNA ahead of the replication fork
You analyze the composition of a nucleic acid sample. Which result would be consistent with the sample containing single stranded DNA molecules?
A) A:22%, C:32%, G:17%, T: 29%
B) A:25%, C:25%, G:25%, T: 25%
C) A:20%, C:30%, G:15%, U: 35%
D) None of the above. This method will not resolve the matter.
3' CCGTTTG 5'
5' ACTCATGGGCAAACGCATTAG 3'
16) What would be produced if DNA polymerase and nucleotides were added to the DNA molecule shown above?
A) 5' ACTCATG 3'
B) 3' CCGTTTG 5'
C) 3' TGAGTAC 5'
D) 3' CGTAATC 5'
E) 5' GCATTAG 3'
In E. coli , what, if anything, will be bound to the control region of the lac operon when glucose and lactose levels are both high?
A) the repressor only
B) Nothing will be bound
C) both the CAP activator and the repressor will be bound
D) the CAP activator only
A cell has 40 sister chromatids during Prophase of mitosis. How many chromosomes should be present in a single cell after the completion of cytokinesis.
A) 20 B) 80
C) 40 D) 10
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