Test 3 review
- University of Texas - Austin
- Classical Civilization
- Classical Civilization 302
- Test 3 review
Last Modified: 2011-10-30
Pompey-millitary mind/ moneybags. Concerned with Senate ratifying arrangements from Eastern conquests (Bona Dea affair delayed these from being passed). Gets his actions approved via Caesar’s consulship. Stays in Rome and gains fame for domestic actions (fixes grain shortage caused by Clodius’ actions as tribunate).
Caesar is the smartest of the bunch but has the least power and Crassus is really the 3rd wheel
led the third slave revolt had an encampment at mount Vesuvius , told the slaves to return to their homelands of origin before rome could mount an attack on them. He led a siege north but then turned back south but never actually attacked rome. Driven back by crassus and killed at lucania
the felt cap that the slaves that were freed had to wear as a sign that they were once slaves
2. changed the calendar
3. became consul in 59 and from there took over till his assassination
4. had an affair with cleo
5. wanted to make rome more grand in appearance
6. said he came he saw he conquered
”The Important thing is that Bibulus is covered in poo. That’s the part not to forget.”-Professor Ebbeler.
-many senators attended
-arranged that Pompey and Crassus will be consuls
-arranged long term commands for themselves
Pompey stays in Rome and commands Spain with legates
Crassus gets Syria
Caesar gets an extended term in Gaul (and can’t be prosecuted)
Antony, Lepidus and Octavian.
It was to last 5 years and was legally recognized.
Could make laws without the senate or people
Right to nominate magistrates
forgiving of all debts. proposed by Cataline during his run for consul in 63 BC
First stated by Cicero. Sallust uses it to describe Cato. (Also the state motto of North Carolina)
Publishment of all Augustus’ actions after his rise to power. Meant to appeal to the masses and create a lasting positive memory of Augustus.
2. lustitia - justice
3. religio - reverence fro religion
4. Imperium - power or empire, cicero persuades senate to give Oct imperium (military command)
5. Princeps - leading citizen
6. Imperator - general or emperor
7. Mais imperium - greater power
8. Pontifex Maximus - the role of high preist given to Augustus
2. duty obligation devotion
showed he was trying to start a dynasty
- Existed from the earliest days of monarchy, it was mentioned in the 12 Tables 450 BC.
- Increased dramatically in 3rd and 2nd centuries, after Romes victories in foreign wars, especially the 2nd Punic war -- to fuel Roman expansionism.
- they helped build houses and temples and buildings and it abled them to have some money and jobs thus helping the economy. they also planted crops, were nurses, writers, philosophers.
- Captives from foreign wars; Celts, German, Thracians, Carthaginians, Asia Minor etc.
- Slave dealers would follow armies and purchase able-bodied slaves from generals. They then transported them by land or sea to Rome or other provinces where they were bought and sold at open slave markets which were overseen by quaestors.
- Cultivated land and ran households.
- Educated/ literate slaves could be accountants, scribes, teachers, doctors, or nurses. Household slaves cooked, worked in the kitchen, cleaned, and did laundry.
-Masters had absolute power over slaves, but it was not a good idea to damage such a huge investment by beating it to death
-they would be hunted down and forced to wear metal collars or possibly branded on the head with the letter F
- They escaped from a gladitorial training school at Capua
- their plan was to free themselves of slavery
- they had initial success. Spartacus moved north and won a battle then moved south for unknown reasons and was eventually killed. Spartacus encouraged his soldiers to go back to their homelands where as Crixtus and his troops went to the south and looted and were killed.
-crassus raised 6 legions with along with four given to him. Crassus had money and was able to so senate asked him. He killed basically all except 5,000 escaped.
-they were killed after going south by roman forces controlled by crassus
-pompey ended up getting the credit because he killed the last 5,000. Senate asked him to intervene because they were getting nervous.
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus were the members of the 1st Triumvarite. Cicero declined to join. Optimates resented the Triumvirate for its violence and disregard for Roman law.
What was Caesar’s attitude towards the senate at the start of his consulship? What happened to change this? How did he circumvent the senate in his efforts to pass land reform? How did this episode increase his power and influence?
- He refunded to the tax-collecting syndicate one third of its bid
- Formally ratified Pompey’s arrangements in the East
- Passed a measure to regulate the conduct of governors in provinces, including hearing governors who had charges brought against them and severely punishing those that were found guilty.
- Allowed Publius Clodius to change status from patrician to plebian, making him eligible for tribune of the plebs
- Ceasar was given command in Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul, and Illyricum,
- five years, with four legions.
- The long term gave Caesar extended exemption from the charges that would surely be brought against him after his consulship were to finish.
- Senate felt nervous, thought that Caesar was getting too powerful
- There are estimates that up to one million Gauls were killed and another million enslaved.
- He forestalled the Helvetti, a Celtic people settled on the Swiss Plateau.
- Also broke the Germanic Suebi who were causing problems in Gaul.
- Supressed the Eburones and Belgae in northern Gaul in 53.
- he made several popular reforms; making the grain ration free, removed ban on collgeia
- Pompey was afraid of him because clodius used his gangs to beat him up
- He was ordered to be killed by milo after his caputre at Bovillae
- The public set fire to the senate house, the senate issued SCU made pompey in charge
- alot of the consuls showed up actually most of them
- held there because that was as far as Caesar could go and retain his command
- that pompey and crassus would become consul and give extended commands for themselves as well as Caesar
- double crossed Caesar making it where people had to take breaks between positions thus can be prosecuted
- this action forced Caesars hand and into action
- this was an act of war on Rome
- He left Caesar little options
- Pompey had support of Senate, Caesar had support of Tribune of plebs
- pompey fled to campania and then to brundisium
- pompey would rally forces even barbs and take control of the sea, starve italy, then invade
-Caesar allowed his enemy to be spared if they asked for mercy. clemency.
-Pompey fled to egypt and his two sons and cato fled to north africa.
-Pompey tried to gain the alliance of King Ptolemy XIII but the king had him cut down as soon he landed
- his sons and support hid in spain
1. to preside over elections/appoint himself
2. to serve one yr term as dictator
3. sole consul
5. became dictator impertuitum
- made them nervous
-He claimed that he was above them by presiding over them and taking away their power
- Republic would be destroyed for good. The senate bestowed many honors upon Caesar after he was sole ruler, mainly as a way for them to display that Caesar had too much power.
- he did so to try to please everyone while taking the best route to curbing debt
- because it obviously needed tending to as the roman year was about 3 months off the solar year
- it is difficult to evaluate because of his untimely assassination, we do not know how far he would have gone
-slaves and lower class people and patricians who fell on hard times as well as gauls
-Because at first cataline mocked cicero and his equestrian status and the fact he wasn’t a ‘real born roman’ so cicero attacked catalines poplulist agenda and turned conservative romans against him which was weird because most conservatives would have supported a ‘real roman born’ and older guy. Also cicero and anotnious beat out Cataline for consul two years in a row.
-Caesar wants them imprisoned as it is worse than death (he reviews past wars such as punic wars) also says that they have their reasons for what they do
- senate sides with cato and has them killed (breaks their necks, carried out by cicero)
-Cicero proclaims himself the savior of the roman state and voted a thanksgiving by the senate.
- Clodius had him exiled because he acted contrary to roman law allowing the conspirators to get executed w/o a public trial.
- he was added to the list of proscriptions by Antony (probably for his phillipics) and was killed, his head and hands were displayed so people wouldnt act against triumvirate
- the Ides of march
- Thought he was becoming to powerful
- same as rom because in one version he was killed by group of angry senators
- the people initially rejoice his assassination
- antony gives him a public funeral
- his killers were exiled
- cicero left deeply distraught and thought antony would restore senatorial aristocracy
Cleopatra and her son Ptolemy Caesar were driven back into Egypt. (alexandria)
-He was Caesar’s grandnephew.
-It was more official than the first and had legal grounding.
-They had 5 year term and had authority to make laws with out the senate and roman people. Could nominate people for office w/o senatorial consent but sometimes did care what the people thought but not always.
Cicero was added to the list by Antony, Octavian didn’t reject (he was killed on 7 December 43 BC).
-this is where antony lost 1/3 of his army when his ally the king of armenia withdrew his calvary
- He launched a propaganda war to rally his support and also make antony a villian
- War against Cleo
- becuase this way it wasnt a civil war
- Cleo and antony fled made their way separately to alexandria
-thier fleets surrendered shortly after
- his efforts at expansion were in vain, partly because he wasnt that good at being a general, he told his successor to leave rome as it is there's no need for more expansion
- by using his own image as ruler
-he managed them by diplomatic approach
- put his image on coins and busts
- positive attitude due to money he brought
-life was peaceful and stable. People weren’t trying to harm fellow man by collecting debt. There was no labor, people weren’t trying to advance or work for anything.
-Augustus tried to advertise peace, loyalty to country and family, libertas(free speech), harmony, justice, respect for religion, respect for tradition like hanging masks in your house which is odd
stepson tiberius made his heir
-Jove, god of marriage, makes it official...sorta (when they go hunting together, the gods create a storm so that they’ll “take shelter” with each other in a cave.
-Mercury comes to tell Aeneas that he needs to leave to fulfill his destiny, so he starts getting ready to take off while figuring out how to break the news to Dido. She figures it out before he has a chance to tell her, gets pissed, and curses him. then commits suicide
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