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_________ was the oldest of 7 children born to poor, uneducated Russian immigrants in Brooklyn, NY - as an adult he called his mother a miserable creature, and told of his father's bad habits such as drinking and fighting. He had a miserable childhood. As a teen, he felt inferior because of his physical appearance and worked hard to compensate, first as an athlete (failed), then through scholarship (succeeded)
Higher needs appear later in life, and are not essential to survival, thus can be postponed. Lower needs have to be met first
The lower the need the greater the strength it has, higher needs are not very strong. Higher needs are not necessary for survival.
What are the characteristics of the higher needs (strong or weak? Necessary or not to survival?)
Higher needs are growth (being or B) needs, contributing to the enjoyment of survival - psychologically beneficial
What did Maslow call the higher needs?
The innate need to know and understand, also know as the need for cognition. Exists outside the main hierarchy of needs, but overlaps with it to help satisfy the basic needs.
What other pair of needs (usually not included in the hierarchy) did Maslow say we are born with? Which of those is strongest?
Accepting of self and others,
Humility and respect toward others,
High level of appreciation,
The “third force” in psychology?
The self and self-insight (acceptance of self and reality, a sense of responsibility for the self).
According to Rogers, what is the central element of the personality?
The process by which we judge experiences in terms of their value for fostering or hindering our actualization and growth. Experiences that we see as promoting actualization are evaluated as good and desirable – having positive value. Experiences we see as hindering actualization are undesirable and have negative value. Both influence behavior because we tend to avoid undesirable experiences and repeat desirable ones
Roger's fully functioning person
Exhibit awareness of all experience and are open to positive feelings as well as negative feelings. Trust own behavior and feelings. Feel a freedom of choice, without constraints or inhibitions. Show creativity and spontaneity. Feel a continual need to grow, strive, and maximize potential.
Maslow’s self-actualized person
What other idea from Maslow is similar to Rogers’ fully functioning person?
Rogers thought personality assessment could only be done through self-examination in a fully accepting environment with one-on-one interviews.
What method did Rogers primarily use to assess personality?
the client (not “patient”) is assumed to be responsible for changing his or her personality. Rogers explored the client’s feelings and attitudes toward the self and others by listening without judgment or preconceptions (with unconditional positive regard). Focus on subjective experiences (aware of distortion). He used empathy, as though he is in their shoes.
The focus of therapy in Rogers’ theory is to change what existing concept?
No. Skinner did not offer a personality theory and his research did not deal specifically with personality.
Is Skinner’s theory really a personality theory?
Skinner believed that psychological study should only involve overt, observable and measurable behaviors. No reference to internal drives.
What characteristics (3) did Skinner believe were necessary in order to scientifically study behavior? What qualities (1) did he believe were NOT important in studying personality?
Rats and pigeons. He stated that the fundamental process of behavior are the same for animals and people, but that human behavior is more complex than animal behavior.
What type of research subjects did Skinner most frequently use?
Behavior is controlled by external environmental forces. To Skinner people are "empty organisms."
According to Skinner, is behavior controlled by internal forces or external, environmental forces?
Reinforcers - any event or thing that strengthens the behavior it follows. A favorable consequence, and punishers - any event or thing that decreases the behavior it follows, an unfavorable consequence.
According to Skinner, what kind of consequences can we manipulate in order to control behavior?
Personality and behavior are the same thing in Skinner’s beliefs. Radical behaviorism says personality change is due to learning. Traits are just descriptions of behaviors.
According to Skinner, what does personality consist of?
Skinner talks about running low on food pellets in the middle of a study. Now, these were the days before “Purina rat chow” and the like, so Skinner had to make his own rat pellets, a slow and tedious task. So he decided to reduce the number of reinforcements he gave his rats for whatever behavior he was trying to condition, and, lo and behold, the rats kept up their operant behaviors, and at a stable rate, no less. This led to the accidental discover of ______________ ______________.
Variable ratio schedule - change the “x” each time; first it takes 3 presses to get a pellet, then 10, then 1, then 7 and so on, inconsistently
What reinforcement schedule do slot machines make use of?
Assessing the frequency of behavior, the situation in which it occurs, and the reinforcers associated with it.
Learning can take place without reinforcement - main difference between Skinner and Bandura. Bandura adds mental processes to behaviorism.
What are some ways Bandura’s theory differs from Skinner’s?
Dysfunctional behaviors are learned from modeling, Bandura dose not attempt to deal with underlying unconscious conflicts.
These problems can be dealt with by changing behaviors, also from modeling
How did Bandura believe psychological problems can be dealt with?
What type of learning is the main principle behind Bandura’s theory?
Modeling - observing the behavior of others (models) then performing that observed behavior. Aggression can be modeled
What influential technique did Bandura’s Bobo doll experiments demonstrate the power of?
Similarity to us, live model opposed to a recording, age/sex (same as observer is best to modeling), status/prestige, and the type of behavior the model is performing
2. Retention processes - learner must remember the behavior
3. Production processes - learner must be able to repeat the behavior
4. Motivational processes - learner must be motivated to perform the behavior
Believe they can deal effectively with events and situations.
Expect to succeed,
Preserver at tasks.
They have great confidence in their abilities and express little self-doubt
Bandura’s beliefs regarding our degree of free will versus determinism
Half and half. Reciprocal determinism - person, environment, & behavior all influence each other. Environment is a cause and effect of behavior
Bandura is an outspoken critic of the violent behaviors examples that are readily available on tv, movies, and video games. Seeing violence gives rise to violent behavior
What did Bandura conclude regarding TV and aggressive behavior?
What are some main advantages or positive points of observational learning theory? (3)
People with _______ _______ __ _________ may be physically healthier, have lower blood pressure, and fewer heart attacks. They also cooperate better with the hospital staff. They tend to be more cautious about their health than externals, and pay more attention to their health because they believe they have more control over their lives.
Rotter’s idea of locus of control is similar to Bandura’s concept of ________________________.
Locus of control is learned in childhood and it’s greatest influence is the parents.
When does Rotter believe locus of control is learned and what is its greatest influence?
What limited domain personality concept is researcher Marvin Zuckerman known for?
Attracted to all kind of activities, but once the initial excitement has worn off, they discontinue the activity because it no longer provides the optimal level of sensation. They are more likely to experiment with drugs, more likely to have homosexual encounters, and take part in more risky activities. This correlates positively with extroversion. They are more likely to be liberal politically and religiously.
Younger people seek adventure, risk, & novel experiences more than older people do.
In what developmental periods do we seem to have naturally higher and lower levels of sensation seeking?
a condition resulting from the perception that we have no control over our environment or circumstances. Linked to depression.
Maladjustment - not getting along with people very well.
Fail to comply to social norms and expectations
What are some general problems that people with personality disorders frequently exhibit? (2)
People we sometimes call psychopaths have what personality disorder?
True/false: Skinner's fundamental idea is that the collective unconscious can be set free by liberating a person to be self-actualized.
True/false: Skinner conceived of personality, as a pattern or collection of operant behaviors.
True/false: Modeling is observing the behavior of a model and repeating the behavior ourselves.
True/false: According to Bandura, hostile and aggressive behaviors tend to be strongly imitated, especially by children.
True/false: Self-efficacy refers to feelings of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life.
True/false: Zuckerman asserted, sensation seeking does decline with age
True/false: Once the initial excitement has subsided, high sensation seekers usually continue the activities that gave them such high stimulation.
True/false: According to Seligman, people who are optimistic tend to be healthier than those who are pessimistic.
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