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Between what two countries military rivalry and arms race was most intensive in the 1900s?
What country longed for revenge on Germany?
France, because they took Bavaria, Lorraine, and Alsace which were rich in iron
What was the Dreikeizerbund and were its major provisions and goals?
An alliance between three emperors namely Kings of Austria, Germany, and Russia to remain neutral in any situation. Just a Gentleman’s agreement, nothing signed
What happened in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875?
What were the major provisions of the Treaty of San-Stefano?
Treaty that stated that Russia would get Moldova for helping Bulgaria defeat the Ottoman Empire.
What European countries objected the Treaty of San Stefano and why?
Britain because Russia had access to the Mediterranian Sea
To prevent a war between Russia and Great Britain. The countries that attended agreed that Great Britain would get Cypress, France would get Tunisia, Austro-Hungary would be allowed to invade Bosnia and Hertsogovinia (cause and start of WWI), Bulgaria lost 2/3 of its territories.
What European statesman was in charge of the Congress of Berlin?
Bismarck *Note Germany did not get anything (Honest Broker) from Berlin Congress.
What were the principle achievements of the Congress of Berlin?
To prevent a war between Russia and Great Britain.
What country was allowed to occupy Tunisia, according the Congress of Berlin agreements?
What was the Dual Alliance?
Alliance between Germany and Austria where if one was in trouble the other would come to its aid
What was the Triple Alliance and what were its principle goals?
An expansion on the dual alliance when a third country joined. The third country was Italy. It joined because it lost its control in Tunisia and Morroco and lost it to France so it joined the opposite team
What development led to the formation of the Triple Alliance in 1882?
In what ways the views of William II about politics differed from those of Otto von Bismarck?
William II (New emperor of Germany after Frederick III died) Weltpolotik. He wanted colonies and world power but Bismarck did not.
Who was Leo von Caprivi?
Counselor to William II
What was the Weltpolotik?
Who were the Young Turks?
Rising political group in Ottoman Empire.
Who was Admiral von Tirpitz? Significance?
Individual in charge of strengthening Germany’s naval power so they could challenge Great Britain.
List the developments during June-August 1914 that led to the outbreak of WWI.
Assasinations at Serevo where Gavrilo Princep carried out a movement to kill unwanted leaders such as Archduke Fracis Ferdinand who was the heir to the Austrian Throne
Who was Gavrilo Princip?
Accused of murder of Archduke Ferdinand
What was the “Union or Death” association?
The movement carried out by young radicals to remove unwanted leaders from political office. Austria was now key to start a war with Serbia, which started WWI
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Plan that was made well before the war by Admiral von Schlieffen. Germany would obtin a quick victory, but that never happened
What happened at the Battle of Marne in 1914?
What happened at the Battle of Verdun?
What country joined the central powers in 1915?
Invention of the Tank by Great Britain, German attack on American ships, and treaty of Brest-Litovsk. National revolts in Austro-Hungary. William II abdicated the throne in Germany
What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia would leave the war and remain neutral
What were the principle provisions of the Versailles Peace Treaty?
What was the League of Nations?
International institute that joined together to prevent wars, but failed.
Who was Peter Stolypin and what was his significance?
Prime minister or Russia under the tzar Nicholas II. Aims were to create reforms that would industrialize agriculture and would lead to an agricultural boom (advancement)
What major political parties emerged in Russia during the early 20 th century?
2 big parties, the socialist revolutionary party (split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) and the social democratic party, and 2 smaller ones the union of the Zamstvo and the union of liberation. Bolsheviks wanted revolution, Mansheviks didn’t.
What were the principal causes of the 1905 revolution in Russia?
Civil society vs. Autocracy. Need for protective labor laws. B/c of WWI Russian industries were forced to produce for the war
What was the October Manifesto and what was its significance?
Passed by Nicholas II under the influence of Sergi Witte. Manifesto that adapted a constitution, Parliament was created (Duma) and Russia was now a constitutional monarchy
What was the State Duma?
What impact the WWI had on the Russian economy and society?
Led to the decline of the economy and a social crisis
What were the military Industrial committees and what was their major purpose?
They were created to boaster wartime production. (increase productions of weapons)
Strikes due to social problems and the psychiatric effect (effects caused by traumatic war events) Decline of tsarist government.
What was the Provisional Government?
Government set up through elections to control politics after the tsarist government went down. Alexander Kerinski was the head of the provisional gov.
What was the major purpose of the Second Congress of Soviets?
To dismiss the provisional government and to create a new coalition government.
Who was Vladimir Lenin?
The Leader of the Bolsheviks who became prime miniser of people’s counsil of Commisars.
What major policies the Bolsheviks carried out during the War Communism?
Consolidated power and destroyed old systems and nationalization. Created the Vacheka (secret police) Constituant assembly was dismissed)
What was the NEP?
New Economic Policy that created denationalization, political repression, end of multiparty system, 5 year economic plan. After NEP, Stalin emerged after Lenin died.
What was the major impact of WWI on the economy of Great Britain?
Decline in economy. There was a depression with a high rate of unemployment.
Unemployment, slow economic recovery because of massive loans from USA
Who was Ramsey MacDonald?
Labor party leader who became prime minister of Great Britain
Combination of 2 parties. Labor and conservative parties. Coalition of the parties that ruled for a few years but eventually declined
What was the British Commonwealth of Nations?
Union between New Zealand, Canada, Australia, Ireland, Great Britain. All under king and queen of england
What were the major problems that British Empire faced after WWI?
Unemployment and debts. Loss of global dominance.
French political party- combination of moderate socialists and liberals in France. Everyone was leftist party politics.
Who was Leon Blum?
What were Action Francaise and Croix de Feu and what were their principal political attitudes?
Right winged nationalists that came to power after WWI. They were Fascists and they wanted dictatorial rule because they felt it would work out better. Croix de Feu was a party for Veterans from WWI.
What major policies were carried out in the Soviet Union during the 1930s?
5 year economic plan (recovery of diminished economy) collectivization (When gov asks all individual farmers to produce together for commercial reasons) purges were carried out (political opposition was removed) and new industrialiation
What were the general economic and social conditions in Italy during 1919-21?
The economy declined and was struggling. Italy didn’t get any reparations from WWI or any monetary compensation (which is why they joined Germany in WWII) and there was political insecurity after the war and the people needed better politics. Mussolini stepped up. Fascism began after that.
What was the general political situation in Italy during 1919-21?
Political disorganization and economic turmoil. Catholic party and Socialist party. They could not work together, but then gradually the socialist party gained prominency
What were the squadristi?
Fighting squads in Mussolini’s party. Wore black shirts and were known as black shirts. Symbol was the Fasci
Who was Benito Mussolini?
What was the Lateran Accord and what was its significance?
Document stipulating that the papcy would except Benito Mussolini as the leader of Italy and it also stated that the Pope would rule the Vatican lands. Also stated that the church was exempt fro taxes and that the church had juristiction of marriage. Mussolini didn’t take over Vatican b/c he needed them on his side.
What principal elements characterized the Fascist economy?
22 corporations/ sectors, public works and protective tariffs, and economy was now stabilized
Dividing of economy in to 22 sectors. (Cotton, metals, steel, clothing, cement, etc.)
What were the general economic conditions in Germany after WWI?
What was the Spartasist Revolution?
General strike and uprising in Germany against the political office. It eventually led to the formation of Weimur Germany
Who were Karl Libknecht and Rosa Luxemburg?
Radical communists/leaders. The cause of the Spartasist revolution. Both used Marxist ideology. The socialists crushed the Spartasists
Who was Gustav Stresmann and what was his historical role?
He was Counselor of Germany after WWI who was responsible for stabilizing the economy and introduced the new currency because the inflation rate was really high. Also carried out numerous foreign policies after he became foreign minister and retired from Counselor
Who was Ernest Roehm?
Hitler’s Rival and Nazi leader. He was killed by Hitler because he was a political threat.
What was the “kristalnacht”?
What was the three K’s?
Defined the role of a woman and now gave them power in Nazi Germany. Women were now allowed to be part of the army or military
What were the Locarno Agreements of 1925 and what was their significance?
It was an agreement that created a fixed border between France and Germany. Created by Streisseman when he became the foreign minister
What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 and what was its significance?
Pact signed by all world powers including USA, Japan, Russia. Great Britain, France, Germany, Australia, and Italy stipulating that war should not be used as a tool to sort out a problem or a dispute
Germany was dissatisfied because it lost its territories and it had to pay reparations. Germany was humiliated and felt that they were not defeated and their leaders quit when they could have won.
GB and France allowed Germany to take what it wanted to keep it happy after WWI. Method of avoiding war with the Fascist or dictators in Italy and Germany. Various issues were sorted by discussion or congresses. No war.
What happened in Spain during 1936-39?
The Spanish Civil War. The popular front vs the Fascists. It brought Germany and Italy together b/c they both supported the Spanish Fascists.
What was the Popular Front in Spain in 1936?
Everyone democratic (Socialists and communists) they opposed the Fascists and they were in support of a coalition government.
Who was General Francisco Franco and what was his significance?
Leader of the Fascists until the 70’s. He was helped to obtain power from Germany and Italy. B/c he was the one guy in power, Spain resisted the decline after WWII.
What nation joined the Rome-Berlin Axis in 1937?
What was the Anschluss?
What was the Munich Conference of 1938 and what was its significance?
Germany, Austria, and Italy against Great Britain and France. They allowed Hitler to invade Sudetenland as long as he would not go any further than that. (part of Czechoslovakia)
What was the Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact of August 1939 and what were its major provisions?
What country was invaded by Germany in 1938?
What country was invaded by Germany in September 1939?
What was the Maginot Line?
The secured border between Germany and France. It had a concrete wall to prevent Germans from invading France. Germany invaded through Belgium instead
What was the Lend-Lease Act and what was its historical significance?
Act where USA supplied the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France with war materials as well as troops.
What Russian city was seiged by the Germans in 1941?
What was Juderein?
Refers to the Hollocaust. Term for the act where Germans wanted to eliminate Jews from European lands
What was the "final solution"?
Who was Bernard Montgomery?
What were the major turning points in the war in 1942?
What were the major issues of the Teheran Conference of 1943?
What were the principal issues of the Yalta Conference of 1945?
What issues led to the split between the Soviet Union and the western allies?
Who was Charles de Gaulle?
What was the Vichi Government?
What was the National Committee of Liberation?
How did European states organize their economies during the war?
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