What did the first studies of competition and predation focus on?
Their effects on population growth.
What is a population?
It is a group of individuals belonging to the same species that live in the same defined area at the same time.
How can time be measured in population models?
Generations, years, or even days.
What is a density-dependent factor?
It is a situation in which population growth is curtailed by crowding, predators and competition.
What is a density-independent factor?
It is when population growth is unaffected by population density.
What is an inverse density-dependent factor?
It is when mortality decreases as a population increases in size.
What are characteristics of r-species?
Early maturation, numerous, smaller young, shorter life spans, less parental care, little competition for resources.
What are characteristics of K-species?
late maturation, fewer, larger young, longer life spans, more parental care, intense competition for resources.
Why is competition is considered a -,- relationship?
Because numbers of even a superior competitor are depressed during the time both species are competing.
Can species compete without having direct contact?
What is competition?
It is an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Limited supply of at least one resource (such as food, water, and territory) used by both is required.
What is inter-species competition?
It is a form of competition in which individuals of different species compete for the same resource in an ecosystem.
What is intra-species competition?
It is a particular form of competition in which members of the same species vie for the same resource in an ecosystem.
What is interference competition?
It is competition that occurs directly between individuals via aggression etc. when the individuals interfere with foraging, survival, reproduction of others, or by directly preventing their physical establishment in a portion of the habitat.
What is exploitation competition?
It is competition that occurs indirectly through a common limiting resource which acts as an intermediate. For example, use of resources depletes the amount available to others, or they compete for space.
What does competition almost always result in?
Extinction of one of species involved in the relationship.
What does a description of a niche include?
Descriptions of the organism's life history, habitat, and place in the food chain.
What is a shorthand definition of niche?
How an organism makes a living.
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
Two species cannot occupy the same exact niche.
What is a fundamental niche?
The full range of environmental conditions (biological and physical) under which an organism can exist.
What is a realized niche?
A narrower niche, which a species is most highly adapted for. A species is forced to occupy a realized niche as a result for pressure and interaction from other organisms.
Give examples of commensalism.
Cattle egrets and livestock, tigers and golden jackals, barnacles.
Explain the benefits to each species in the relationship between ants and acacia trees.
The acacia ant protects the bullhorn acacia tree from preying insects and from other plants competing for sunlight, and the tree provides nourishment and shelter for the ant and its larvae
Describe the experiment between ants and acacia trees.
Janzen removed ants from some acacias and compare the reproductive success of trees with and without ants.
What is character displacement?
It is when a species changes its niche in response to competition in order to avoid extinction.
What is ecology?
The study of the interaction of organisms with each other and with their physical environments.
Organisms that feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivores.
What are omnivores?
Organisms that feed upon both producers and consumers.
What are parasites?
Organisms that feed upon living organisms, causing diseases.
What are saprobes?
Organisms that feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies.
What are the two major types of digestion?
Extracellular and intracellular.
What is intracellular digestion?
It is digestion which takes place within the cytoplasm of the organism, as in many unicellular protozoans.
Give examples of organisms that use intracellular digestion.
Most organisms that use intracellular digestion belong to Kingdom Protista, such as amoeba and paramecium.
What are the advantages of a one way flow digestive tract?
It allows food to be processed in an orderly sequence.
What specific problem do herbivores have to deal with in regards to digestion?
They have to deal with plant material that is difficult to digest.
Describe adaptations for a herbivorous diet.
Longer intestine than related carnivores that allow more time for processing (frog tadpole). Grinding departments (bird gizzard). Housing for symbionts in cecums or caecums (horses).
What is a ruminant?
It is a mammal that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach, then regurgitating the semi-digested mass, now known as cud, and chewing it again.
What are tannins?
They are highly toxic to fungi and unfortunately livestock in high concentrations. Some tannins attach themselves to digestive enzymes, which causes the enzymes to be unable to break down passing food molecules.
How do mule deer now use the toxic tannin to their advantage?
They have proline-rich saliva which binds tannin allowing them to thrive on diets that contain over 20% condensed tannin. This can increase the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Tannins may also control gastrointestinal parasites.
What is the function of the oral cavity?
Obtains and processes food.
What is the function of salivary glands?
What is the function of the esophagus?
Transports food to stomach.
What is the function of the liver?
What is the function of the stomach?
Stores and mechanically disrupts food. Digests some proteins.
What is the function of the gallbladder?
Stores bile until needed; secretes bile into the small intestine.
What is the function of the pancreas?
Secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine.
What is the function of the large intestine?
Absorbs some water and minerals; prepares wastes for defecation.
What is the function of the small intestine?
Site of most digestion and absorption.
What is the function of the rectum?
What is the function of the anus?
What are the essential amino acid's for humans?
phenylalanine, valine,threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, leucine, lysine, and histidine.
What is an essential amino acid?
an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet.
What are amino acids?
The building blocks of proteins. There are 20 standard amino acids out of which almost all proteins are made.
What are water soluble vitamins?
Vitamins that dissolve easily in water and they are usually not stored in the body in any appreciable amounts. Water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C and the B vitamins.
What are fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamins that can be stored in fat and so may accumulate in the body. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K.
What is the biosphere?
It is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth, a closed and self-regulating system.
What is an ecosystem?
It is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight.
What is a community?
It is an assemblage of two or more populations of different species occupying the same geographical area.
What are abiotic components?
are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. Abiotic factors, while generally downplayed, can have enormous impact on evolution.
What are biotic components?
It is any living component that affects another organism, including animalsthat consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes.each biotic factor needs energy to do work and food for proper growth.
What do biotic components usually include?
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers.
What is a autotroph?
It is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions. Also called producers.
What is a heterotroph?
What is nitrification?
It is the change of ammonia and ammonium to nitrites (NO2) and then to nitrates (NO3) by bacteria.
What is a detritivore?
It is a heterotroph that obtains nutrients by consuming decomposing organic matter. Ex. Earthworms.
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