Post Punic War Imperialism
to spread and gain more land was impulsive and a huge opportunity. Non italian conquests made provinces, not necessarily allies. Governors served more than one year and had little to check authority. new conquests paid tributes or other people to take their place in the army. Provinces used to fund, strained the empire.
Greco Roman Culture
Romans basically took the Greek culture and claimed it. They adopted Greek education, literature, art and basically copied it. Greco-Roman as it is called
People are totally dependent on the gods. about procedure, not morality. The state had pontiffs to be in charge of the procedures for government. the father was in charge of the family procedures. public and private festivals were really important
Pontiffs and College of Augurs
College of Augurs interpreted signs and symbols for the government. Pontiffs were in charge of the how the procedure was conducted.
not based on race, most were prisoners of war. if they had a set of valuable gifts they were treated well. some were treated really bad.
leads a slave revolt of 100,000 slaves. successful for 2 years. When defeated they were crucified along the Appian way.
Role of Roman Women
under legal control of men. divorce is common and easy to access. some are briefly educated. youngest to marry was 12, most married when they were 14. not segregated from men, they often ran the home and estate. never were allowed to have political power.
Later Republican values
individualism, affluence, status, wealth. Rome becomes a conspicuous consumption society.
optimates populares and equestrians
The Nobles are split into categories: the optimates and populares. Optimates are in control and want to keep the control and power. Populares are wanting power to control the Plebs to break the Optimates. Equestrians are wealthy non-nobles that can't be in a high office position.
Gracchus brothers were two brothers who were killed by the Senate for attempting to equal citizenship for everyone in Rome. they were the first to appeal to the masses for power as opposed to the Patricians. justified political violence. Equestrians rise up. After the Gracchus brothers, Gaius Marius is put in charge of the military. he abolished the requirement that soldiers had to own property. He accepted volunteers and promised them rewards. people were more loyal to him than Rome. Elected consul 7x. Sulla was Gaius Marius’ inferior. he was jealous and didn't like being under Marius’ control. He was put in charge and won a big battle and he appointed himself dictator for for life. Used his power to reform the state.
Crossing the Rubicon
Ceasar in charge
. Ides of March
Battle of Actium
Legionnaires- citizens who served for 20 years
Auxiliary forces- served 24 years and became citizens at the end
Praetorian guard- 9000 elite troops charged with protecting the princeps and served 16 years.
Roman Army as agent of culture
Augustan Moral Reform
Roman family in the Empire
Appeal of Christianity
Early Christian Churches
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