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the middle ear contains 3 bones called the...
the peripheral regions of the retina contains only _____ cells
Taste buds and olfactory cells are both _______ receptors
the skin is sensitive to
pain pressure and temp
a substance is perceived as tasting sweet because of its _____ structure.
Light enters the main part of the eye is called the
Vitamin A is important for vision b.c it actss as a precursor of ________ needed in rod function.
the lens of the eye _____ the image as it passes through this structure.
the structure within the ear responsible for equilibrium is known as the.....
the absence of rods and cones produce
pressure equalizes in the mid ear due to the functioning of the....
a cornea with some flat spots causes
required to convert opsin and retinal back to rhodopsin
converts sound waves to vibrational movement
the inverted imafe falls on the
a pressure wave moves unchanged through the fluid-filled
crystals associated w balance are termed the
the inner ear is called the
another name for typmanic membrane is the
sensory receptors in the nose are classified as
saliva contains mucus which helps lubricate food particles it alsocontains an enzyme
the portion of the retina composed of only cones is called the
organisms must first percieve before it
sense organs are what kind of receptors and are found where?
somatic receptors and are found near joints
brain determines if its horrible ____ or not
what action dosent involve the brain?
largest senor organ
skin is what percent of body weight
kemo receptors on the tounge recept what
smell and taste through gasses and liquids
Umani Bitter Sour Sweet Salty
we can recognize how many different odors
you have two ears because
equilibrium and to distinct where the sound is comming from
where your ear pops
eardrum is aka
hairs filterforgein material
what four parts are attached to the colechea
ossicles hammer anvil and stirrup
auditory nerve in the back of the eye
sends info straight to the brain
Basil nerve cells
calcium carbonate crystals
a strip of tissue
semi circular canals help with
equilibrium, everytimes you move fluid will move and detect also speed and direction
motion sickness is
over stimulation of the brain
how many muslces are used to move the eye?
_____ is a stimlulus of sight
who only see color
contain eye color and pigments
directly behinf the pupil
eyes are composed of how many layers
what are the three layers of the eyes called?
what are the colors that rods react to?
red, blue and green
rods are responsible for
who is most commonly color blind?
what is wrong with the astigmatic cornea?
the surface of the cornea is unequally curved.
the muscular processes that are responsible for moving food along the digestive tract
is of different lengthes in males and females
the eustachian tube functions to
equalize air pressure within the ear
The RNA synthesis, adienine pairs with
the DNA synthesis adenine pairs with
Codons are found in molecules of
During protein synthesis codons interact with
protein assembly occurs on
the DNA molecule is not straigh, it exsits in the shape of a
Amino acids are brought to the ribosomes by molecules of
While there is only one kind of DNA there are ______ kinds of RNA
The base sequence found in m-RNA molecules is determined by
our sense of equalibrium is associated with the
semi circular canal
the major function of the sense organs is
collection and transmission of environmental information
the rods in the retina are required for
black and white vision
the structure of the human eye that functions in the same way as a camera shutter is
the punctured eardrum impairs hearing b.c the sound waved are no longer directly transmitted to the....
the number of different T-RNA molecules is
the protein assembley point
organelle of the cell which contains information
an RNA-speceific base
complementry to the codon
overall control of protein synthesis resides here
anticodon found here
molecule responsible for lining up amino acids in the correct order during syntheis
makes up part of the ribosomes structure
a base sequence recieved from your parents
code units found on mRNA
melanin is responsible for your
DNA stands for
RNA stands for
Who were the two people who found he 3-D structure of th DNA
james Watson and Francis Crick
DNA polymer contains....
all heredity info of a cell and is composed of nucleotides
nucleotides have 3 componets linked by condensation what are they?
phosphate, 5-c surgar, one of 4 nitrogen bases
what makes up the backbone of the DNA?
thymine pairs with
guanine pairs with
thymine and adenine are bonded by how many hydrogen bonds?
guanine and cytosine are bonded by how many hydrogen bonds?
Purines consist of
adenine and guanine
pyrimidines consist of
thymine and cytosine
RNA is what kind of structure?
what makes up the RNA's backbone?
RNA backbone is link by a
Uracil binds with
during DNA replication what pulls apart the DNA?
DNA polymerase does what?
synthesises the new DNA
RNA is different to DNA b.c
its smaller, uracil replaces thymine ribose instead of deoxyribose and there are several forms
the different forms of RNA are
rRNA stands for and is used to...
ribosomal RNA and used to buil the ribosome
tRNA stands for and is used to...
transfer RNA- transfers amino acids from storage to ribosome where they will be used (anticodon)
mRNA stands for and is used to...
messenger RNA- contains the instructions oor the primary structure of the protein to be produced(codon)
transcription happens in the
nucleus of a cell
translation happens in the
cytoplasm of a cell
how many different amino acids and tRNAs are there?
what is the most common start codon?
formation of mRNA
formation of protien on a ribosome
base substitution mutation....
when one nucletide is replaced by the other
1 nucleotide is replaced by another. but the final amino acid sequence of the protein is not charged.
the altered codon still codes for an amino acid but for a different acid.
nonsense mutation and base insertion and misense are all _______ mutation
the outward appereance of a genetic makeup is called the ______
when the phenotype of F1 is a mixture of the phenotypes of the parents, the inheritance mechenism is
a cross is used if you are not sure of the dominant genotype
a hempholic male and his normal wife produce a hemophilliac son. If their next child is a girl, she has a % chance of being normal......
alternative forms of genes are called
taster is a dominant gene. If taster has children who are non-tasters, this genotype must be_____.
An individual hemizygous for a characteristic has allels for this gene
a gene carried on the x chromosome and passed to males is said to be inheritiance pattern is
a hybird is produced by a gene combination called
characteristics that express themselves over a wide phenotypic range are due to
the universal blood donon
a gene that always expresses itself
Rh-O-Gam is useful here
blue eyes blond hair 5'3" tall
a normal person who can pass on the abnormal gene
inheritance pattern of hemophilia
no dominat characteristic in heterozygote
blood clotting disorder
results of mitosis
2 genetically identical cells
2 daughter cals w different genetics and go through it again to create 4 gentically different daughter cells
Steps of mitosis
Prophasae metaphase and anaphase
what happens in prophase
DNA starts comming apart
what happens in metaphase
4 chromosomes go against the cell plate
the cell begins telophase and cytokinesis
cell info into daughter
split apart to make a new cell
a segment of DNA that encodes 4 a specific amino acid sequence of a protein
contrasting forms of a gene, dominant or ressesive or mased and denoted bya lower case letter.
P stands for
F1 stands for
F2 stands for
gregor mendel expeirmented with and his theory was
did an expierment with garden peas. theory: parents transmit factors that remain into 2 allels
what goes into the offspring
AABbCCDdEeFFGgHHiiJjKk how many different kinds of gametes?
2^6= 64 count howmany heterozygous pairs there are!
O can receive from and give to?
++, --; ++
--; ++, -+
genetic deffect in which a chromosome is missing
when a piece of one chromosome is exchanged with another chromosome it is termed a
a genetig defect that involves the secratory tisue and interferes with breathing and digestion
removal of fluid from the sac surrounding the fetus is termed
a dengenerative disorder of the nervous system that strikes later in life is called
if you are a carrier of a defective gene you are phenotypically
14/21 chromosome condition
viable monosomic condition
a picture of the chromomes
comined Immune Deficiency disorder
loss of a chromsome
trisomy and kleinfelter's syndrome
chromosomal based birth defects can include
additions deletions, translocations, and inversions.
add a piece to the chromosome
out of order chromosome
inborn erros of metabolisim
provides the ability to visualize the entire chromosomes of an individual
heart and digestive tract disorders
high lukemia rate
reduced mental capacity
shortened life expectancy
meta X syndrome
Extra Y syndrome
cystic fibrosis(gene based)
faulty chloride channels
gene therapy has begun
late onet disorder
hexoseaminodase A missing
recessive gene lack of melanin
recessive cataracts mental retardation
recessive similar to sickle cell
sex linked internal bleeding fail to clot
dominant elongated limbs defects of aorta and skeleton.
afflictions caused by sex-linked genes are more prevalant in
the most effective way of making human chromosome counts is
by treating and culturing white blood cells
discrete chromosomes are visible in a cell when
only the cell is dividing
meta-X is a sex chromosome anormally affecting the human female sucha condtition usually arises as a result of
an increased frequency of nondisjunction
the extra y chromosome of XYY males was thought for some time to cause
aggresive antisocail behavior
XO females are unusual in comparison to humans born with other chromosomal defects b.c
suffer no mental difiencies
are inactivated X chromosomes
inborn errors of metabolisim generally result from biochemical abnormalities that are in turn produced bby the lack of malfunction of one or more
when a sexlinked gene expresses itself in a male child you know that he recieved the gene from his mother and not his father b.c
sex-linked genes are always inherited that way, he can only get a Y chromosome from his father, the X is from the mother
nearsightness is inherited as an autosomal recessive gene if a near sighted man marries a normal-vision woman whoes father was near-sighted, what might we except fromt heir children?
when a trait occurs with five or six graded variations, a probable genetic explination would be
multiple gees are involved
prior to cell division new DNA is produced in the
the genetic inheritanve you recieve from your parents consists of
intruction for protein synthesis
DNA replication, RNA synthesis, codon-anticodon interaction all have what in comon?
travel downt he strand of m-RNA sweeping up activated amino acids and making protein
it is considered genetically unsound fotr first cousins to produce children because
they are moe likely to share lethal genes
in a typical sex linked inheritance
son cannot inherit the gene from his father
in an RH- man marries an RH+ woman
no medical problems will arise s a result of RH incompatability
sex link traits are
found in different frequencies in males and females
the large scale production of genetically similar individuals is known as
the presence of an extra chromosome
cause of downsyndrome
sometimes caused by disjunction
is sometimes caused by translocation
the technique where by fetal cells may be obtained for observation or analysis is called
sickle cell anemia
is a disorder involveing hemoglobin
the chromosomal abnormality in which a portion of one chromsome beaks off and becomes attached to another chromoome is called
combined immune deficiency disease is an example of a genetic problem that is
most of what we know of the princples underlying human genetics has been derived from expieremnets and analysis of plants and animals because
humas make poor genetic subjects
a genetic disorder that involves the secretory tissues of the lungs digestive tract and pancreas is called
inborn errorsof metabolism generally results from biochemical abnormalities that are in turn produced by the inherited lack or malfunction of one or more
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