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· ATWS research showed that people have negative views of women, when in fact what was happening is the males had negative views of the idea of female-male equality in society (Eagly & Mlandinic). People often have positive views of women but at the same time have negative views on female privilege and equality.
· Bem found that when people are tested for masculinity and femininity, they are more often androgynous (high in both) or undifferentiated (low in both) than one or the other
- said a person could possess both characteristics.
-new dualistic model
-agentic- task oriented, assertive, achievement-motivated. (masc.)
communal- relationship and other oriented, sensitive (feminine)
· Hostile sexism is an explicit anger and resentment toward people who defy traditional roles. It is negative attitudes and beliefs about women.
o “women are too easily offended”
o more tolerant of wife abuse
· is pseudo-positive and sees females as fragile, gentle, pure and in need of protection. Sexism marked by positive beliefs and attitudes regarding women.
o “women need men to provide for them”
Implicit sexism: automatic associations between gender and traditional gender roles
· male-career; female-domestic
· It is assessed implicitly with a gender IAT test (Rudman and Glick). People rated female job applicants who were either agentic or androgenous. Implicit sexists rated agentic applicant more negatively.
· Those affected by sexist comments have a decrease in self-perceived performance, appearance and self-esteem. (swim and Hyders)
· STEM faculty (Moss) research found that even though a male and females resumes (to be a lab manager) were identical, the male’s resume was rated much higher
· In terms of student recommendation letters (Trix), males were more likely to receive longer and more compelling letters; females were more likely receive more personal reference letters
· only 11% of corporate CEOs are women
orchastra auditions: masked auditions = more women
The book talks about different ways that men and women have been depicted in the media over the years. Things have changed a little but not drastically. Men are usually seen as bright achievers and women tend to be valued more for their physical appearance.
The book also talks about the fact that these may exist because they just have for so long so it continues.
facesism, body shots, men are more powerful.
Usually, sexist humor can be see as innocent fun. However, it is generally directed towards women and this may indicate deeper hostility towards women.
· Sexist humor totally perpetuates stereotypes and women who heard sexist as opposed to non-sexist jokes tended to react with eye-rolling and felt hostility toward the comments
· Malamuth et al found that indicated sexist jokes were most enjoyed by men who are in higher acceptance of violence toward women
Contact hypothesis: bringing conflicting groups together under the right circumstances will reduce prejudice.
Allport’s requirements: equal status, common GOAL (and success), cooperation, and support from authority
Describe the Common In-group Identity model, and specify the cognitive processes it claims reduce prejudice. Describe some research that supports the model. What is the model’s main problem?
-Steps: de-categorize in vs. out-group; re-categorize into common in-group
-Mainly affects social identity and deprovincialization (realization that there are multiple ways to live socially)
-Main problem: colorblind ideology problems - it works out better for the majority group
What is Pettigrew’s view of the contact hypothesis? What does he think is the important determinant of reduced prejudice?
-He stated that researchers confuse what is essential in intergroup contact with what is facilitative. Research tends to focus on why contact will result in positive intergroup contact, but does not explain how this change occurs.
- Pettigrew’s reformulation: “friendship potential” best predictor of long-term prejudice reduction. The best predictor of prejudice reduction is having a friend
-Rank important qualities; people usually rank “freedom” above “equality.” Then you confront them about the fact that devaluing equality undermines freedom. It works for those who feel bad about being prejudiced.
-devaluing equality undermines freedom
i don't really think its an effective technique since it only works for people who feel bad about being prejudice
Functional approach: Suggests that stereotypes exist and are utilized because they have a motivational foundation. They serve more than one important psychological functions for the individual and therefore, they are resistant to change or elimination.
. Describe the steps of Monteith’s compunction model and the role of self-regulation in reducing prejudice. In your view, is such an approach effective? Why or why not?
prejudiced thoughts -> guilt. Repeated guilt->cues for control. It only works for those who feel bad when they’re prejudiced
Describe three ways in which perspective-taking works to reduce prejudice, and evidence that supports these ways. (empathy)
-imagining others’ cognitions, motives, emotions, etc.
-example the HIV positive student. people were less prejudice after hearing the story.
o · Galinsky & Ku, ‘04
) Self-other overlap- How much of the ‘other’ do you include in the self
o P’s wrote about day-in-the-life of elderly man
§ From his perspective or not
o Self-esteem also measured
o The more self esteem they had the better they felt about the elderly.
-less prejudice when they wrote in his prospective·
· Vescio et al. ’03: perspective-taking reduces internal attributions
o Internal-something about the person
o External- something about their situation
o White participants listend to radio show about college adjustment of Black 1st gen. college student
§ Discussed difficulties of college adjustment
o Were ‘other-focused’ or ‘objective-focused’
o 3) Perspective-taking reduces internal/dispositional attribution
· Colorblind: Tend to minimize the roles of groups memberships
· Multi-cultural: Tend to stereotype more. Need to get over the fact that stereotypes are ok. They see that differences are okay.
· Scientific research does not support a belief that homosexuality is a choice. They have done twin studies in which one is gay and one is not
· they have found in-utero hormones (prenatal androgens) that contribute to gender genetic makeup: the finger gene for gay people.
· it matters because people might have less estranged or less prejudice reactions when interacting with homosexuals if they knew it wasn’t a choice.
Heterosexism = parallels racism or sexism but against homosexuals; negative attitude toward sexual minorities
· Homophobia = irrational fear of homosexuality; dread of being in close quarters with homosexualsThe historical happening: homosexuality was defined as a pathology in the DSM until 1973. In the 60s-70s gender and sexuality was constructed, and society’s rethinking of sexual orientation was crystallized in the term “homophobia”, coined by George Weinberg. Around the same time, heterosexism began to be used as a term analogous to sexism and racism, describing an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship, or community
RWA plays a complex role in heterosexism. Describe Haddock and colleagues’ research that clarifies it. What questions does this research leave unanswered?
-perceived value violations=more prejudice
-more negative affect=more prejudice
-more personal contact=less prejudice
-stereotypes don’t matter (maybe b/c RWAs don’t know much about LGBT)
-negative affect and stereotypes=more prejudice
-few perceived value violations
personal contact doesn’t matter (why?)
. Ideologies have come up repeatedly in this class (e.g., religion, politics, inter-ethnic). Summarize some of this ideology research. Do you expect that some of these ideologies might show big change in the future, and if so, how do you suppose peoples’ attitudes toward various groups might change? Politics
– Liberals tend to be low in explicit prejudice, high in implicit (averse racism). Avoid out-group members out of fear of appearing prejudiced, but are fine with out-group members initiating conversations with them (it may give them a chance to show how non-prejudiced they want to be)
Largely depends on motivations for identifying as religious. While generally speaking, religious people tend to be prejudiced, it doesn’t necessarily cause it. Those who are intrinsically motivated (e.g., “I enjoy reading about my religions history.” “I agree with the core values of my religion and try to adhere to them.”) tend to be less prejudiced. Those who are extrinsically motivated (attended church for social benefits, free snacks & coffee after sermon, etc.) tend to be more prejudiced
Majority and minority groups approach groups and intergroup relations differently. Summarize some of these differences, and identify cases where a greater understanding of another group’s perspective might reduce intergroup conflict.
-Minority groups identify more with their group. Majority group members and minority group members have different goals.
-Perspective taking: self-other overlap, empathy, reduce prejudice
-Taking the perspective of a member of an out-group reduces intergroup anxiety by including more of the “other” in your self-esteem, which makes you view the other and yourself more positively. Increasing empathy helps you understand the issues and struggles another has, which also reduced intergroup anxiety. - Majority groups approach intergroup interactions wanting to be “liked” by the out group -.Minority groups seek to be “respected”by in group
Mastery: how you feel your aptitude for functioning in society is; your competence; feelings of status and power. (One may feel prejudice due to superiority)
· Connectedness: How connected you feel to others may influence your perception of importance of group membership
· Positive Self-View: Self/Group Esteem. How you feel about yourself and your group may influence your opinion of outgroups, and could potentially lead to derogation of outgroups.
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