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an early twentieth-century style and movement in art, especially painting, in which perspective with a single viewpoint was abandoned and use was made of simple geometric shapes, interlocking planes, and, later, collage.
Cubism was a reaction against traditional modes of representation and Impressionist concerns with light and color. The style, created by Picasso and Braque, was inspired by the later work of Cézanne and by African sculpture.
The viewer is simultaneously presented with multiple viewpoints (i.e. above, below, within)
a belief in the value of what is simple and unsophisticated, expressed as a philosophy of life or through art or literature
1. Modern dance depicting pre-historic Russian fertility rites
2. Performed by the Ballets Russes in Paris, and choreographed by Nijinsky
3. Brutal tonal dissonances and throbbing rhythm
a phase of Cubism in which natural forms are “analyzed” and reduced into basic geometric parts on the picture plane. Rather than an emphasis on color, Analytic Cubists focused on geometric forms to represent the natural world.
b. Collage: mixing three-dimensional media with flat surface
a. Break up of traditional tonality into “atonality”
b. Tone row of 12 notes repeated in inverted, retrograde, or inversion either whole or in part
c. Notes related only to each other, not to a tonal center
d. Pierrot Lunaire, 1912
i. Sprechstimme, or combination singing and
not written in any key or mode
not written in any key or mode
a style of dramatic vocalization intermediate between speech and song
a style of painting with vivid expressionistic use of color that flourished in Paris from 1905 and, although short-lived, had an important influence on subsequent artists, especially the German expressionists. Matisse was regarded as the movement’s leading figure.
“Mine is an art of balance, purity, and symmetry, devoid of
depressing subject matter.” Art is “the playpen of the mind.”
an artistic movement begun in Italy in 1909 that violently rejected traditional forms so as to celebrate and incorporate into art the energy and dynamism of modern technology.
a style of painting, music, or drama in which the artist or writer seeks to express emotional experience rather than impressions of the external world. Expressionists characteristically reject traditional ideas of beauty or harmony and use distortion, exaggeration, and other non-naturalistic devices in order to emphasize and express the inner world of emotion; insists on the primacy of the artist’s feelings and mood, often incorporating violence and the grotesque
a group of American Realist painters active from ca. 1908 until World War I, who painted scenes from the slums of New York
any of a number of philosophies maintaining that a knowledge of God may be achieved through spiritual ecstasy, direct intuition, or special individual relations
Piet Mondrian, Composition with Large Red Plane, Yellow, Black, Gray, and Blue
b. Balance of horizontal and vertical elementsc. Completely abstract
an early twentieth-century movement in art, literature, music, and film, repudiating and mocking artistic and social conventions and emphasizing the illogical and absurd. It favored montage, collage, and the ready-made.
Hannah Höch, Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the LastWeimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany
a twentieth-century avant-garde movement in art and literature which sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the irrational juxtaposition of images
a montage constructed from
the part of the mind in which innate instinctive impulses and primary processes are manifest
the part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and is responsible for reality testing and a sense of personal identity
the uncontrolled expression
of the subconscious
Max Ernst, La Toilette de la mariée (Dressing of theBride)
horrific injuries to her back in an accident
repressed eroticism, desire, and anxiety. Sensual, yet disconcerting juxtaposition of fur and beverage
sculpture that is influenced by organic and abstracted forms found in nature, as opposed
to rigid forms
a decorative structure that is suspended so as to turn freely in the air
a twentieth-century Dutch art movement founded in 1917. The movement favored an abstract, economical style and was influential on the Bauhaus and constructivist movements.
a school of applied arts established by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919 and noted for its refined functionalist approach to architecture and industrial design
Bauhaus Building Machine Shop,
a group of influential architects in Chicago and the Mid-West; emphasis on horizontal lines by using low roofs with wide, projecting eaves. The low, spreading structures are characterized by light, crossing volumes and spaces
setting and structure
windows and utilization of natural, on-site
the predominant decorative art style of the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by precise and boldly delineated geometric shapes and strong colors and used most notably in household objects and in architecture
William van Alen, Chrysler Building, ca. 1925, New York City
Stuart Davis, Hot Still-Scape for Six Colors – Seventh avenue Style- abstraction
experience of modern life
advertising and fast paced mobility
Norman Rockwell, Freedom from Want, from the Four Freedoms series, Saturday Evening Post
Illustrator who captured the American ideal for mass media magazines- representational art
Captures the ideals of family, harmony, simple pleasures, and the privilege of peaceful democracy – the “American way” – that citizens fought for during World War II
Scare” of the 1930s and the rising tide of
sentiment against foreigners
African American movement of the 1920s and 1930s in Chicago’s south side and New York’s Harlem district; artistic flourishing devoted to establishing an African American cultural/social identity
Part of the large, narrative Migration Series
dedicated to black history
modernist style and narrative strength
events in the lives of ordinary people
American experiences during the prohibition era, when alcohol was prohibited
Aztec and Mayan art
triumphs of the machine age
government sponsored a program for the purposeof providing a record of economic and social
conditions in rural America
Film was supported by the Russian communist government as a vehicle for propaganda and a fine art.
the technique of selecting, editing, and piecing together separate sections of film to form a continuous whole
Worked for the Nazi regime. Her film is a propaganda vehicle, glorifying Hitler and the Third Reich
technique never done before
Ten-minute lamentation for the victims of the first atomic bomb
a philosophical theory or approach which emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will
a style or movement in the arts that aims to depart significantly from classical and traditional forms
a development of abstract art which originated in New York in the 1940s and 1950s and aimed at subjective emotional expression with particular emphasis on the spontaneous creative act (e.g. action painting). Leading figures were Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning.
a style of abstract painting in which paint is randomly splashed, thrown, or poured on to the canvas. It was made famous by Jackson Pollock, and formed part of the more general movement of abstract expressionism.
a style of American abstract painting prominent from the late 1940s to the 1960s which features large expanses of unmodulated color covering the greater part of the canvas. Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko were considered its chief exponents.
Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1960
a form of abstract art that gives the illusion of movement by the precise use of pattern and color, or in which conflicting patterns emerge and overlap.
art based on modern popular culture and the mass media, especially as a critical or ironic comment on traditional fine art values. The term is applied specifically to the works, largely from the mid 1950s and 1960s, of a group of artists including Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, who used images from comic books, advertisements, consumer products, television, and cinema
Claes Oldenburg, Clothespin, 1967, Central Square, Philadelphia
objects in gigantic size
New Realism (a.k.a. Photo Realism; Hyper Realism; Super Realism)
a style of art and sculpture characterized by the highly detailed depiction of ordinary life with the impersonality of a photograph
people, to which is added real hair and clothing, resulting in “living dead images of the most prosaic types of social beings.
Uses fiberglass polyester resin molded from real people, to which is added real hair and clothing, resulting in “living dead images of the most prosaic types of social beings.
artistic works intended to enhance or become part of an urban or other outdoor environment; the production of works of art by manipulation of the natural landscape.
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970, Great Salt Lake, UT.
Swiss architect and town planner
Eero Saarinen, Trans World Airlines Terminal, 1962, Kennedy Airport, New York
Swedish director who probed the tortured psyches of his characters, their spiritual alienation, anxiety, and existential crises.
a style or genre of cinematographic film marked by a mood of pessimism, fatalism, and menace. The term was originally applied to American thriller or detective films made in the period 1944–54 and to the work of directors
such as Orson Welles.
the operation or planning of economic and foreign policy on a global basis
a late twentieth-century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism, which represents a departure from modernism and is characterized by the self-conscious use of earlier styles and conventions, a mixing of different artistic styles and media, and a general distrust of theories.
first called for a rejection of the impersonal, abstractInternational Style in 1966. The new architecture would be referential to the past and present, and allow architects to design according to their own
creativity, rather than a strict code of rules. Buildings should contain meaning, and also allow for humor and irony.
Robert Venturi, Vanna Venturi House, 1962, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia
Charles Moore with U.I.G. and Perez Associates, Piazza d’Italia, 1979, New Orleans
Consortium of Australian architects and Chinese engineers The National Aquatics Center
Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living
Kehinde Wiley, After Memling’s Portrait of MaartenNieuwenhove
a type of music of black American origin which emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century, characterized by improvisation, syncopation, and usually a regular or forceful rhythm. Brass and woodwind instruments and piano are particularly associated with jazz, although guitar and occasionally violin are also used; styles include Dixieland, swing, bebop, and free jazz.
Simon de Beauvoir
Beauvoir questioned the existence of a preordained “femininity,” which condemns women to social and intellectual subordination to men.
Challenges traditional European stereotypes of female beauty represented in Classical and Renaissance images of Venus, the goddess of love
Instead, refers to the primal force of female nature found in the earliest Paleolithic goddess figurines
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