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Matrix is the blood plasma- a clear light yellow fluid consisting a little over half of the blood volume. Plasma is a mixture of water (92%), proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, hormones and gases.
Suspended in the plasma, formed elements are cells and cell fragments including the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Term denotes that these are membrane-enclosed bodies with a definite visible structure.
Carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart.
Right half of the heart supplies the pulmonary circuit. It receives blood that has circulated through the blood and pumps it into a large artery, the pulmonary trunk.
Circulation to & from lungs
Supplies blood to every organ of the body, including other parts of the lungs and the wall of the heart itself. The left side o the heart supplies the systemic circuit. It pumps blood into the body’s largest artery (aorta).
Circulation to and from rest of the body.
Delivers blood to extremities.
Contains 5-30 mL of pericardial fluid, exuded by the serous layer of the pericardial sac. Allows the heart to beat with minimum friction.
Heart is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the PERICARDIUM.
visceral pericardium (Epicardium)
Serous membrane on the heart surface. Consists mainly of a simple squamous epithelium overlying a thin layer of areolar tissue.
parietal pericardium ( Pericardial sac)
The outer wall has a tough, superficial fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue, and a deep, thin serous layer. The serous layer turns inward at the base of the heart and forms the epicardium (visceral pericardium). Anchored by ligaments to the diaphragm below and the sternum anterior to it; and more loosely anchored by fibrous connective tissue to mediastinal tissue posterior to the heart.
Composed of cardiac muscle, lies between two layers, and composes most of the mass of the heart. It performs the work of the heart
Continues around the left side of the heart in the coronary sulcus. It gives off a left marginal branch that passes down the left margin of the heart and furnishes blood to the left ventricle. The circumflex branch then ends on the posterior side of the heart, where it supplies blood to the left atrium and posterior wall of the left ventricle.
1. Great vein
Collects blood from the anterior aspect of the heart and travels alongside the anterior interventricular artery. It carries blood from the apex of the heart toward the coronary sulcus, then arcs around the left side of the heart and empties into the coronary sinus.
2. Middle cardiac vein
Found in the posterior interventricular sulcus, collects blood from the posterior aspect of the heart. It, too, carries blood from the apex upward and drains into the same sinus.
3. Small Cardiac Vein
The small cardiac vein runs in the coronary sulcus between the right atriumand ventricle and opens into the right extremity of the coronary sinus.
It receives blood from the posterior portion of the right atrium and ventricle.
It may drain to the coronary sinus, right atrium, middle cardiac vein, or be absent.
A large transverse vein in the coronary sulcus on the posterior side of the heart collects blood from all 3 of the aforementioned veins as well as some smaller ones. It empties blood into the right atrium.
CAD is a narrowing of the coronary arteries resulting in insufficient blood flow to maintain the myocardium. It is usually caused by atherosclerosis, a vascular disorder in which fatty deposits form in an arterial wall, causing arterial degeneration and obstructed blood flow.
A patch of modified cardiocytes in the right atrium, just under the epicardium near th superior vena cava. This is the PACEMAKER that initiates each heartbeat and determines the heart rate
A cord of modified cardiocytes by which signals leave the AV node. This bundle soon forks into right & left branches, which enter the interventricular septum and descend toward the apex of the heart.
left & right
(Sinoatrial node (SA node) & atrioventricular node (AV node))
Nervelike processes that arise from the lower end of the bundle branches and turn upward to spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They distribute the electrical excitation to the cardiocytes of the ventricles. Form a more elaborate network in the left ventricle than the right.
The middle layer, usually the thickest. It consists of smooth muscle, collagen, and in some cases elastic tissue. The relative amounts of muscle and elastic tissue vary greatly from one vessel to another and form a basis for the classification of vessels described. Strengthens the vessels and prevents blood pressure from repturing them, and it produces VASOMOTION, changes in vessel diameter.
Outermost layer, consisting of loose connective tissue that often merges with that of neighboring blood vessels, nerves, or other organs. It anchors the vessels and allows small nerves, lymphatic vessels, and smaller blood vessels to reach and penetrate into the tissues of the larger vessel.
The biggest arteries. Like an interstate highway, they serve only to deliver blood at high speed to the major ‘exit ramps’ that head off to individual organs. The aorta, common carotid and subclavian arteries, pulmonary trunk, and common iliac arteries are examples of conducting arteries. They have a layer of elastic tissue called the internal elastic lamina.
Smaller branches that distribute blood to specific organs, like the exit ramps and state highways that serve individual towns. Most arteries that have a specific name, are in these first 2 classes. Brachial, femoral, renal, and splenic are examples of distributing. Distributing layers normally have 40 layers of smooth muscle.
Occur in most tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Endothelial cells are held together by tight junctions, form a continuous tube. A thin protein carbohydrate layer, the basal lamina, surrounds the endothelium and seperates it from the adjacent connective tissues. Some continuous capillaries exhibit cells called pericytes, that lie external to the endothelium.
Irregular blood-filled spaces in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, and some other organs. They are twisted, tortuous passageways. Conform to the shape of the tissue. Their endothelial cells are seperated by wide gaps with no basal lamina. Even protein and blood cells can pass through these pores. This is how albumin, clotting factors, and other proteins synthesized by the liver enter the blood, and how newly formed blood cells enter the circulation from the bone marrow and lymphatic organs. Contain macrophages.
Range up to 10 mm in diameter. Most veins with individual names are in this category, such as the radial and ulnar veins of the forearm. Medium veins have a tunica media of loosely organized bundles of smooth muscle interrupted by regions of collagenous, reticular, and elastic tissue. Many medium veins exhibit infoldings of the tunica interna that meet in the middle of the lumen, forming VENOUS VALVES.
Diameter greater than 10 mm. They have some smooth muscles in all three tunics. The tunica media is relatively thin, with only a moderate amount of smooth muscle. Tunica externa is the thickest layer and contains longitudinal bundles of muscle. Large veins include the venae cavae, pulmonary veins, internal jugular veins, and renal veins.
Rises for about 5 cm above the left ventricle. Its only branches are the coronary arteries, which arise behind two cusps of the aortic valve. They are the origins of the coronary circulation.
Curves to the left like an interverted U superior to the heart. It gives off 3 major arteries (brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery.
passes downward posterior to the heart, at first to the left of the verterbral column and then anterior to it, through the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It is called the abdominal aorta below it. It ends in the lower abdominal cavity by forking into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Recieves all of the blood draining from the abdominal digestive tract, as well as from the pancreas, gall bladder and spleen. It is called a portal system because it connects capillaries of the intestines and other digestive organs to modified capillaries of the liver;thus; the blood passes through two capillary beds in series before it returns to the heart. Intestinal blood is richly laden with nutrients for a few hours following a meal. The HPS gives the liver first claim to these nutrients before the blood is distributed to the rest of the body. It also allows allows the blood to be cleansed of bacteria and toxins picked up from the intestines, an important function of the liver. Its principal veins:
Digestive venous return
Hepatic portal vein-A continuation beyond the convergence of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins. It travels about 8 cm upward and to the right, receives the cystic vein from the gallbladder, then enters the inferior surface of the liver. In the liver, it ultimately leads to the innumerable microscopic hepatic sinusoids
Lymph flows through a system of lymphatic vessels, similar to blood vessels. These begin with microscopic lymphatic capillaries, which penetrate nearly every tissue of the body but are absent from the CNS, CARTILAGE, CORNEA, BONE, AND BONE MARROW. Closed at 1 end.
Is the body’s largest lymphatic organ, measuring up to 12 cm long and weighing up to 160 g. It is located in the left hypochondriac region, just inferior to the diaphragm and posterolateral to the stomach. It is protected by ribs 10-12. Spleen fits snugly between the diaphragm, stomach, and kidney. Has indentations called gastric area and renal area. Medial Hilum penetrated by the splenic artery, splenic vein, and lymphatic vessels.
LIES DORSOLATERAL TO STOMACH, CONTAINS LYMPH NODULES
FILTERS BLOOD NOT LYMPH
STORES IRON (FE)
TRIGGERS B & T CELL IMMUNE RESPONSE
Composed of multiple tissues, meeting the criteria of an organ. Red & Yellow bone marrow.
Red bone marrow- soft loosely organized, highly vascular material. (involved in hempoiesis (blood formation) and immunity.)
Yellow- adipose (fat) tissue, can be disregarded for present purposes.
Patches of lymphatic tissue located at the entrance to the pharynx, where they guard against ingested and inhaled pathogens. Each is covered by an epithelium and has deep pits called tonsillar crypts.
3 main sets of tonsils: PHARYNGEAL TONSILS a single median on the wall of the pharynx just behind the nasal cavity. A pair of PALATINE TONSILS at the posterior margin of the oral cavity and numerous LINGUAL TONSILS, each with a single crypt, concentrated in a patch on each side of the root of the Tounge.
NK CELLS- (KILLER CELLS)- LARGE LYMPHOCYTES THAT ATTACK AND LYSE BACTERIA, TRANSPLANTED TISSUE CELLS, AND HOST CELLS. STAY ON LOOKOUT FOR ABNORMAL CELLS.
Fluid continually filters from the blood capillaries into the tissue spaces. The blood capillaries reabsorb about 85% of it. One would die of circulatory failure within hours if this water and protein were not returned to the blood stream.
a. Maintains blood volume
b. Maintains interstitial fluid composition
In the small intestine, special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary lipids that cannot be absorbed by the intestinal blood capillaries.
Penetrate nearly every tissue of the body but are absent from the CNS, cartilage cornea, bone, and bone marrow. Closely associated with blood capillaries, but unlike them, they are closed at one end. Consists consists of a sac of thin endothelial cells that loosely overlap each other like the shingles of a roof. The cells are tethered to surrounding tissue by protein filaments that prevent the sac from collapsing.
* BLIND END VESSELS
Lymphocytes and macrophages congregate in dense masses called nodules, which come and go as pathogens invade the tissues and the immune system answers the challenge.
When a lymph node is fighting a pathogen, these nodules aquire light-staining germinal centers, where b cells multiply and differentiate into plasma cells.
Indentation called the hilum on one side. It is enclosed in a fibrous capsule with trabeculae that partially divide the interior of the mode into compartments.
consists of sinuses gorged with concentrated erythrocytes
Consists of lymphocytes and macrophages aggregated like sleeves along small branches of the splenic artery. In tissue sections, white pulp appears as an ovoid mass of lymphocytes with an arteriole passing through it. However, its 3 dimensional shape is not egg like but cylindrical.
when they encounter an enemy cell they attack it directly and destroy it with toxic chemicals. This is why immunity carried out by T cells is called cellular (cell-mediated) immunity.
helper T cells activate not only the B and Tc cells of adaptive immunity but also help to mediate the nonspecific inflammatory response. They secrete chemical that stimulates the B cell to divide still more.
Larger than B cells and have an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Develop mainly in the germinal centers of the nodules and lymph nodes
They are a connective tissue cells that secrete defensive proteins called antibodies
Instead of becoming plasma cells, some B cells become memory cells that live for months to years and respond very quickly if they ever encounter the same antigen again. This provides long lasting immunity to that pathogen
Natural killer cells included in nonspecific defense and defend equally against a broad range of pathogens
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