how languages differ between speakers of the same language a language type that is characterized by a particular regional or social group
a language has different ways to say the same thing
fluent in two dialects
when a person switches into a dialect that is not his own
the individual dialect spoken by a person
style choices or vocab used to display membership in a particular group
what we use in informal everyday speech
used with a particular group and at a given time to show membership in that group at the exclusion of non-members
technical language, such as used in a particular profession or hobby
how are dialects formed?
Geography Social differences (economic ecology, social class, communities of practice) Settlement patterns (founder effect, migration, contact)
Borrowing (pizza) Coinage (creating new words) Compounding Acronyms Blending (smog) Clipping (gas) Conversion (change part of speech) Economy (kleenex) Back formation (burgle to burglar) Folk stymology Recutting (workaholic)
Broadening Narrowing Semantic shift
words with multiple related meanings ("the house is at the foot of the mountains" v. "one of his shoes felt too tight for his foot)
a shift has created a gap and languages compensate to fill the gap
one change conditions more changes afterwards
major metropolitan areas are start of dialect shift
dialect traits of rural towns move to metropolitan areas
lines in a dialect map separating feature use drawn between towns
lines drawn on a dialect map separating feature use drawn through towns
features isoglosses intersect making it difficult to distinguish dialects
multiple isoglosses running together
when isoglosses disappear
relic area isogloss
where there are holdouts of older usages that complicate isoglosses
"standard dialect" attached to a particular variety by the community at large and that defines how people should speak in order to gain status in the wider community
defines how people should speak in order to be considered members of a particular community
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