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Arizona State University - Tempe
Religious Studies 100
Test No. 3
Test No. 3
Religious Studies 100
Arizona State University - Tempe
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Experiencing the World's Religions
Ways of Being Religious (Arizona State University)
- Lun Yu
- sayings and conversations of Confucius
- compiled after his death
The Great Learning
- Da Xue
- first text read by school boys about education of future junzis
The Five Classics
The classical literature of the time preceding Confucius, including poetry, history, and divination.
Book of Changes (Yijing) [Book of Divination]
Five Basic Relationships
- parent and child
- husband and wife
- elder and younger brother
- friend and friend
- ruler and subject
"Noble person," the refined human ideal of Confucianism.
- will to seek good for others
- good form
- the right thing to do at the right time
the rectification of names (calling someone by their correct title)
Master Meng (Mencius)
- 4th-3rd c. BCE
- humans are good by nature
- natural goodness must be cultivated
- emphasized family obligations
- rulers must provide for all citizens
- right to revolt against unjust ruler
temples of culture
- wen miao
- established in each province
- included images of Confucius
- sacrifices to Confucius
The mysterious origin of the universe, which is present and visible in everything.
Tao Te Ching
The classic scripture of Daoism
The legendary founder of Daoism.
6th c. BCE
The strictest of the Chinese philosophical schools, which advocated strong laws and punishments.
A Chinese school of philosophy that taught universal love.
The life force.
- the one
- primordial energy
- the breath of life
Cultural refinement; a Confucian virtue
"No action," "no strain"; doing only what comes spontaneously and naturally; effortlessness.
The active aspect of reality that expresses itself in speech, light, and heat.
An ancient Confucian book of divination, one of the Five Classics, still in use today.
The receptive aspect of the universe that expresses itself in silence, darkness, coolness, and rest.
Author of the Zhuangzi, a book of whimsical stories that express themes of early Daoist thought.
Who is Lao Tzu?
Lord of Humanity
The goal of Confucian teaching is
a stable and justly ruled society
Is training in De necessary in Confucian philosophy?
What is the main goal of Confucianism? To become
Filial Piety is
first identifiable Chinese state
period of major political and social chaos. States fought with one another
during Chou dynast, 3rd c. BCE
Where is Daoism practiced?
Taiwan, Hong Kong, Chinese communities of Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, San Fransisco
Purpose of Daoist practice
- learn how to control chi
- ally oneself to yang
- but also cultivate yin
T'ai - chi
- developed in 18c. CE as a training for martial arts
- helps to channel chi to body organs and revitalize them
- practiced by Chinese at dawn and dusk for their health
- ruler of the Universe
- NOT a creator god
- supreme ancestor of the Chinese + ancestor of ruling Shang family
- guarantor of moral order
- king - chief priest and diviner
- Mandate of Heaven
- Chou Dynasty
- more impersonal designation for concept of heavenly power
- special relationship based on merit, not birth
Until 1906, the Emperor was known as the Son of Heaven
What does wu-wei mean in government?
4th c. BCE
- = Laozi
- nature is above culture
- the individual is above society
- focused mainly on individual path to liberation
- total detachment from society and civilization
- life is a delusion?
Way of the Celestial Masters
- founder: Zhang Daoling (healer)
- group still exists today in Taiwan
- secret society + strict hierarchy
- goal: attain longevity through faith healing, meditative trance, and alchemy
- accepted minorities and women in the ranks of parish leadership
the Yellow Turbans
- the Way of Great Peace
- founder: Zhang Jue
- 2nd c. CE conquered the whole of the Yellow River in eastern China
- Yin and yang were no longer in balance in heaven and on earth
- a new "Yellow Heaven" mandate was to replace the Han dynasty mandate
The Celestial Worthies
the Three Purities
- emanations of the Dao
1) Lord of Heaven
2) Lord of Earth
3) Lord of Humanity
The Three Officials
(Officials of Heaven, Earth, and Water)
- ancient deities
- keep records of human deeds on earth
- control each person's life span and fate after death
- when Daoist falls sick, priest would submit petitions to the Three Officials
The Eight Immortals
Zhang Guolao is one of them
the god of the stove (Daoism)
Where did Confucianism dominate the philosophy of education?
How do Daoists and Confucians differ from one another?
- emphasized nature
- harmony of indiv. w/ Dao
-if humans let Dao happen, virtue will come
-emphasized better relationships
-humans make Dao great by seeking virtue
6th c. BCE (Warring State Period_
- poor aristocrat
- at age 50, served as official in Lu
- his policies were rejected
- he resigned
- became a wandering teacher
- did not question tradition
- emphasized moral virtue
Confucian scholars and their role during the Han Dynasty
- people started thinking of Confucius as a god
- emperor sacrificed at Confucius' grave
- nat'l shrine
- temples of culture
- birhtday of Confucius = holiday
- 5 Classics=core curriculum
- civil service exam for officials
Confucianism in Korea
Yi Dynasty adopted Confucianism
Confucianism in Japan
- enters in 7th c.
- becomes especially important in Tokugawa period (17th-19th cc.)
Confucianism in China
- 1905 the Ch'ing rulers abolished the civil service exam in favor of Western education
- 1949 communist gov't outlawed sacrifices to Confucius
- 1980 Confuciust revival
+his ancestral house rebuilt
+ Confucian classics studied
"Shining in heaven"; goddess of the sun
"Warrior knight way"; military devotion to a ruler, demanding loyalty, duty, and self-sacrifice; an ideal promoted by State Shinto
The stately ceremonial music of Shinto
Location in southeastern Honshu of a major shrine to Amaterasu
"Male who invited"; primordial male parent god
"Female who invited"; primordial female parent god
A Shinto shrine
A spirit, god, or goddess of Shinto
A shelf or home altar for the veneration of kami
"Spirit wind"; suicide fighter pilots of World War II
The earliest chronicle of Japanese history
A ritual of purification that involves standing under a waterfall.
The second chronicle of Japanese history.
Dramas performed in mask and costume, associated with Shinto.
A New Religion, which stresses art and beauty.
Twisted rope, marking a sacred spot
A New Religion devoted to human betterment
A gatelike structure that marks a Shinto sacred place
"way of the spirits"
Important Shinto Dates
- 6th c. CE: Shinto and Buddhism adjusted to one another
- 19th c.: in response to Western challenge, the Emperor Meiji reinterpreted Shinto
- after 1945: the emperor Hirohito denied his divinity
- first human emperor (Shinto)
- Amaterasu's great-grandson
- ancestor of all imperial houses
- human w/ Kami nature
- able to communicate with sun goddess
communion with Kami
Relationship between Shinto and Buddhism
- they are compatible
- Buddhism provided for life after death
- Kami identified with bodhisattvas
- leading scholar
- Shinto surpassed all encompassed all religions
- Buddha and Confucius are kami
- Japan is superior to other countries
goal: modernization, westernization
- ended samurai era
- ended state patronage to Buddhism
- restored power to emperor
- created constitution and legislature
- opened Japan to foreign trade
- made State Shinto
- emphasized ancestor veneration
sought health and well being
(Teaching of the Heavenly Reason)
-formed by a peasant woman Miki
- Kami of Divine reason appeared to her
- she healed her sons and others
What is Shinto Worldview?
What does it mean to be human?
Japanese are potentially kami
by acting heroically, they can become kami
individual is never isolated
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