Prevalence of Preventable Risk factors for the development of heart disease
physical inactivity shows the highest percentage
Why is smoking a risk factor?
increase platelet Aggregation (increase clotting)
increase blood pressure
increase irritability of the heart (increase arrhythmias)
inc myocardial O2 requirements
90% of middle-aged will develop High BP
no definite cause
BP when the heart is contracting
The diastolic pressure is specifically the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the heart when the ventricles fill with blood.
Total Cholesterol Equation
VLDL-C + LDL-C +HDL-C
factors affecting cholesterol concentration
INC cholesterol in diet may slightly increase plasma cholesterol
High amounts of saturated fat in diet INC plasma cholesterol levels
Unsaturated fats in diet may lower plasma cholesterol level
cholesterol lowering drugs may reduce LDL-
REsults questioning the link between reducing LDL-C and reduction in risk of development of atherosclerosis and heart attack
found to lower LDL-C and raise HDL-C yet increased incidence of heart attacks and strokes
Health and Body Composition
excess body fat can be related to increased risks to health, can limit physical activity, can hinder exercise training and sports competition particularly in activities that demand high relative (to body mass) abilities.
Body composition (def)
an expression of the relative proportions of the body's mass that are attributed to the various tissue compartments e.g. fat and lean
Some reasons to assess body composition
to provide a baseline for future decisions about weight loss and weight gain
to help develope realistic goals about how to best achieve an "ideal" balance fat and non-fat(lean) compartments
to indicate general health and fitness status
Height to Weight tables
provide only statistical landmarks based on average height/weight ratios associated with lowest mortality rates in people 25-59 yrs.
Height to weight tables developed primarily from...
Height to weight tables provide....
no measure of body composition
Downsides to using Height to weight tables
these offer limited value to evaluate physique because overweight and overfat often describe different aspects of body composition for physically active men and women
many athletes weigh more thna the average wieght-for-height standards- the "extra weight due simply to additional muscle mass
Body Mass Index (def)
derived from body mass related to stature, to evaluate the "normalcy" of body weight kg/m2
What is the importance of BMI
its not that it predicts obesity, but rather that its curvillinear relationship to all-cause mortality ratio increases as BMI increases.
mass/height squared (in meters)
Limitations of BMI: BMI fails to....
consider the body's proportional contribution of fat, and the very important aspect of body fat distribution, referred to as fat patterning
Limitations of BMI: A high BMI can lead to...
an incorrect interpretation of overfatness in relatively lean individuals with excessive muscle mass.
Limitations of BMI: doesn't take into consideration...
proportions of weight attributed to fat and lean tissue
Overfatness can lead to...
primary risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, and other diseases, secondary risk factor for heart disease; related to high total cholesterol and LDL related to increased risk of hypertenstion.
What are the two types of fat?
subcutaneous: fat just below the skin
lean: skeletal muscle, bone, and connective tissue, organs
Where is essential fat found?
in the marrow of bones, internal organs, muscles, and lipid-rich tissues of the central nervous system
EF includes additional....
sex-specific essential fat in the female
a biologically established range limit below which encroachment impairs health status
Storage Fat consists of...
fat accumulation in adipose tissue
Storage Fat includes...
visceral fatty tissues that protect the various internal organs and the larger subcutaneous fat tissue volume deposited beneath the skin's surface
Lean Body Mass represents...
the body mass devoid of all extractable fat
LBM remains relatively...
constant in its content of water, organic matter, and minerals throughout the adult's life span
Reference man and woman
RM is taller and heavier, his skeleton weighs more, and he has a larger muscle mass and lower total fat content than does the reference woman.
Difference between RM and RW exists...
even when expressing the amount of fat, muscle, and bone as a percenta
Body fat for RM
15% of total body mass
Body fat for RW
27% of total body mass
Body fat for RM and RW
provide a useful frame of reference for statistical comparisons and interpretations of data from studies of diverse groups of athletes, individuals involved in physical training programs, and the underweight and obese.