How are grounds constructed and why are they important
First step in constructing condition as SP - define SP, specify condition, who is harmed and # of victims it creates
Tell people the "facts" ("facts" may or may not reflect social reality)
Audience members interested in SP's as subjective conditions
How are diagnostic frames constructed and why are they important
2nd step in constructing condition as SP - what kind of problem is it? what are the causes (social/individual)? who is to blame/ who or what causes problem
Claims-makers must construct condition as particular type of condition, and this means constructing blame and responsibility
2 Broad Types of Frames : 1. Construct Social Cause (social structure or social factors - family, economy) 2. Focuses on Individuals (behavior, personality, beliefs)
How are motivational frames constructed and why are they important
3rd step in constructing condition as SP - appeal to logic/emotion
Answer the question - why should we care
2 Broad Types of Frames
How and why do claims-makers appeal to logic (fundamentals)
Through: 1. Cultural Themes (beliefs about how the world should work) 2. Individualism 3. Nationalism/ Patriotism 4. Capitalism (belief in goodness of private property/profit and free market) 5. Family 6. Fair Play (believe everyone should be equal under law) 7. Religion
Make people think - if you don't do this, this will happen (rational b/c is affects me)
How and why do claims-makers appeal to logic
What is social problem ownership
When one particular diagnostic frame becomes the taken-for-granted frame for that problem.
How does competition occur in the context of the social problem game
Claims-makers compete with one another because they need your money
What does carrying capacity mean and how does an audience's carrying capacity affect claims-making strategies
Audiences can only pay attention to so much for a certain amount of time
There is only so much time/money/resources - claims-makers have to keep audience's attention
What are the major claims-making strategies for constructing grounds
Typifying stories as implicit definitions
Constructing Extreme (bad) Consequences
Claiming at the Right Time
What are the major claims-making strategies for constructing diagnostic frames
Constructing Simple Diagnostic Frames - ignore complexity of real world (make things very simple and only blame 1 person or 1 social structure)
Construct Familiarity - Piggybacking or Domain Expansion
What are cultural themes and how do they relate to the study of social problems
beliefs about how the world should work
> logic doesn't mean "fact", it's our definition about how the way the world works (historically/culturally specific)
> we don't all agree on same cultural themes (some more important than others)
> has to do with Motivational Frames appealing to logic
> the more cultural themes are constructed in a claim the better - if people don't agree with one thing, they'll agree with another
What are prognostic frames and how/why are they constructed
The Solution (has to match diagnostic frame)
Claims answering: "what should be done?" and "who should do it?"
Legitimize some solutions ("ours are the best";"those others won't work")
What are social problem
s formula stories
Centers on Diagnostic Frame (who's to blame leads to > who can fix)
Conflicting Cultural Themes
Consequences of Solutions
Time, energy, money
What are social problem s formula stories
Consists of: 1. The Plot 2. The Characters 3. The point
narratives about experiences/people
what audience members see, hear, evaluate as a package of people that produce claims and story
audiences and gov't officials have limited carrying capacity and resources
> Political Climate
now good time for more liberal claims
Who has the ability to make policy changes? How does this process work
High Political power/victims
obesity awareness month doesn't do much but is cheap and appears helpful
How are target populations important in prognostic frames
Target populations are characters in FS
How are these populations constructed and what are the consequences
Positive Constructions, High on Political Power > victims who are good moral people > pretty easy to get public policy >...
Negative construction, Low on Political Power > villains who are evil who we hate > ex: violent, sex offender criminals
Positive Construction, Low on Political Power > good people who are victims with no political power > ex: children,...
Negative Construction, High on Political Power > ex: coorperation executives (finance election campaigns) > 3/4 symbolic...
> cultural theme
What are claims-making strategies in constructing prognostic frames
Right time: audiences and gov't officials...
Solution is relatively easy and inexpensive >...
Solution to change individuals >individualism...
Solve the Emergency > Best FS talk about
Declaring War > war on... obesity, drugs,...
Language of Science and Law > appeal to audience
Matter of Gov't Concern > convince it is...
Obtaining Organizational Sponsors (regular...
Politically Acceptable Solutions > political...
Why are organizational sponsors important
individuals don't have as much pull as organizations
moral outrage > building shelters for battered women/homeless - not fix whole problem
What is the relationship between social problems and politics
Important political people have more power in claims-making in SP's
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