Fort Duqesne: Near Pittsburg, built to protect trade by the French in 1754. English tell French to get lost via George Washington. Washington is politely rebuffed. French held Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War, and it became one of the focal points for the war because of its strategic location. British finally captured the site after the French destroyed the Fort on November 25, 1758. British built Fort Pitt on it. Maximillian Robespierre: Most radical leader of the Jacobins. Executed in 1794, arrested by committee. Joined the Estates General in 1789 as a popular representative. Passionate for the early gains the Revolution made. Believed in perfection by purgation?guillotine. D. Diderot: (1713-1784) Rationalist. Wrote The Encyclopedias. French philosopher and writer, supporter of Catherine the Great. Jumonville Gen: Opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near Uniontown Pennsylvania. General George Washington led a force to attack the Candiens under the command of Joseph de Jumonville, who was among the slain, though the circumstances of his death are a subject of historical controversy and debate. (Massacre, heads on pipes, Indians mistranslate?) French-Indian War: aka 7 years War. French is kicked out of North America. War was expensive, and English parliament thought the colonists should have to pay for own defense, since the war was provoked by them. French fur trappers Baruch Spinoza: (1632-1677) Dutch Jew of Portuguese descent. Lived in Amsterdam. Took Descartes? saying to doubt everything very seriously. Coined the phrase ?sub specie aeternitatis?. One of the first people to give historically contingent reading to the Bible?doubted all that was written in the Bible was true. He was a human lens polisher striving for clarity Laissez-faire: An economic policy that emphasizes the minimization of government regulation and involvement in the economy. 18th century French school of economic thinkers known as the physiocrats devised the slogan. 3 Estates: aka ?estates of the realm?; broad social orders of hierarchically conceived society. The nobility, the clergy, and the commoners. Tea Act: Raise money for the BEIC. Act of Parliament of Great Britain to expand monopoly on the tea trade to all British Colonies, selling excess tea at a reduced Price. Lexington & Concord: First military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. Fought on April 19, 1775 near Boston. Marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between Great Britain and its 13 colonies. First shots were fired just as the sun was rising at Lexington. Candide: (1759) French satire written by Voltaire. Begins with Leibnizian optimism and Candide?s slow and painful disillusionment as he witnesses and experiences great hardships in the world. Characterized by a sarcastic tone as well as erratic, fantastical, and fast-moving plot. Montesquieu: (1689-1755) condemned China as a despotic state whose principal is fear. Advocated the rule of law and recommended that constitutional safeguards should limit governments. (Disagreed with Voltaire). Developed an influential theory, according to which Western political traditions were benign and tended toward liberty, whereas the governments of Asian states were hopelessly despotic and concentrated power in the hands of tyrants. Thus, weakness of Asia, strength of Europe. ?Oriental despotism?. Treaty of Paris: Officially ends Revolutionary war in 1783. Key points were the 10 Articles. Individual states ignored Federal recommendations Sub specie-aeternitatis: Spinoza. The perspective of eternity. Encouraged all of us to see ourselves as part of something huge, something that was here before us and will continue after we?re gone. Geometry of the universe pointed in this direction Galileo: (1564-1642) Could see the moons of Jupiter through his telescope. By the time he published the results of his astronomical observations through a telescope in 1610, the instrument was famous throughout Europe. Great Italian astronomer. Johannes Kepler: (1571-1630) worked out the path of the planets around the sun; one o Emperor Rudolf?s favorites. His works provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton?s theory of universal gravitation. Cornwallis: Captured by George Washington at Yorktown Gaspee: (1772) small BBritish warship seized in Narragansett Bay, RI as an act of civil disobedience. Stamp Act: Direct result of the French-Indian war. Tax on any paper goods in North America to offset war costs. Repealed by British after bad reaction from Colonists. Boston Tea Party: (1773) Result of the Tea Act. Colonists dressed like Indians and raided ships. Closed Boston Harbor as a punishment for Massachusetts. John Locke: (1632-1704) Philosophy was Tabula Rosa . Thought the mind was able to organize our experiences in a way that makes sense. Suggested there were primary and secondary qualities to experience. Also a political philosopher. Believed a government should protect Natural Rights of All Men by virtue of birth: Life, Liberty, Property. Believed people should have a say in own government. Rene Descarte: (1596-1650) Mathematician and logician who invented the process of deduction. He believed the only way to get the truth was to being by doubting everything and constructing philosophy out of tiny pieces of truth. He believed eventually bigger truths would become apparent and would be mathematically proven and undeniable. Reason was the way to solve problems. F. Bacon: Baconian empiricism (cousin of Cartesian rationalism). Interested in reason, but believed you can trust sense. Experiences were most important for knowledge. Thought it was impossible to reason about God. T. Hobbes: (1588-1679) ?bellumm omnium contra omnes?. Describes mankinds? life in a state of the nature, without government, would be everyone fighting everyone. Argued in favor of a strong, autocratic king. G. Washington: American General and first US president. Captured Cornwallis at Yorktown. Also valuable in French-Indian War at Fort Duquesne, brings back soldiers and covers up Jumonville Massacre. Jacobins: most famous political club of the French Revolution. Notorious for implementation of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was a member. Followed the National constituent Assembly to Paris in 1789. Assumed more and more power in 1793, with support of mod. Purged convention of those they held disloyal to the Republic, ending with a widespread program of execution. Bastille Prison: seen by the French radicals as a symbol of oppression. Rebels broke into it in search of arms and gunpowder on July 14, 1789, found no political prisoners. French Revolution Yorktown: where George Washington captures Cornwallis and gets him to surrender. Enlightenment: Movement of 18th century European thought championed by philophes, thinkers who held that change and reform were desirable and could be achieved by the application of reason and science. Most Enlightenment thinkers were hostile to conventional religion. Encyclopedias: Written by Diderot. Wanted a comprehensive work that would ?start from and return to Man? while covering every intellectual discipline. Assemble the knowledge scattered over the face of the Earth. Enormous emphasis on utility, engineering, mechanics, and technology. Advocated reason and science as means to truth. Natural equality of all men. Uniformly hostile to organized religion. Epistemology: how do we know what we know? Disagreement between rationalists and empiricists. Branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge. T. Jefferson: Studied at the College of William and Mary. Founded University of Virginia. 3rd President of the United States. Copernicus: (1473-1543) Polish astronomer and churchman, proposed reclassifying the Earth as one of several planets revolving around the sun. Expanded the limits of the observable heavens, substituted a dynamic for a static system, and wrenched the universe into a new shape around the paths of the planets. Parliamentarian: expert advisor on parliamentary procedure. Supporter of Parliament in England. Moravians: Zinzendorf was a bishop. Evangelical Protestant denomination. Religious heritage began in 1457 in Bohemia. Places a high premium on Christian unity, personal piety, missions, and music. Emblem is the Lamb of God. Coercive Acts: aka Intolerable Acts. Describes a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Britain?s colonies in North America. Triggered outrage and resistance in the colonies, and were important developments in the American Revolution. D. Hume: (1711-1776) Most famous empiricist of the Enlightenment. Scotsman. Argued that reason could mislead as much as the senses. Argued for rights for others because of empathy. Thought experiment involving billiard balls. Reason could mislead us into assuming something that isn?t necessarily true. Can?t explain by use of reason alone. Immanuel Kant: (1724-1804) German. Lived in East Prussia. Cleared up battle between reason and experience and faith. Agreed with Locke, everything we know, we know through experience. Unimpressed with Hume. Believed moral law was absolute. Tabula Rosa: Mind at birth was a blank slate on which our experiences write; John Locke Bishop Berkeley: (1686-1753) Irishman. Suggests that our sensation of the world was the world?it only exists in our minds. Sophie?s World. Committee of Public Safety: Meant to put a stop to anarchy, defend the republic. Samuel Johnson: (1709-1784) Grumpy old man. His friend Boswell said he couldn?t refute Berkeley?s argument; Johnson began to kick stone, that?s how he knows it exists outside his mind. Haitian Revolution of 1791: the French colony called Saint-Domingue. Rebellious slaves seized power. The French Revolution provided Haitian slaves with a basic ideology of liberation. Started outside enlightened and revolutionary circles, with rumors the king had freed them, voodoo ceremonies, slave leadership. Estates General: The medieval assembly of the realm. Summoned in 1788 for the first time since 1614. In 1789, gave itself the title of National Assembly with the right to ?interpret the General Will fo the nation?. In August, it enacted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Colonial Legislature National Assembly: Radicals from the 3rd Estate. Released Declaration of the Rights of Man. Louis XVI: King during French Revolution. Riots in Paris diverted him and prevented him from sending troops to disband National Assembly. Led to riot at Bastille. Abandoned Paris; tried to escape. Massacred in 1793 along with Marie Antoinette. Wealth of Nations: published by Scots professor of moral philosophy, Adam Smith. Appeared in the same year as the Declaration of Independence and should be counted among the US?s founding documents. Encouraged the American Revolution, for Smith said that government regulations limiting the freedom of colonies to engage in manufacture or trade were ?a manifest violation of the most sacred rights of mankind?. Bellum Omnium Cantra Omnes: Thomas Hobbes. The war of all against all Empiricism: The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge. Sir Isaac Newton: (1642-1727) English physicist. Could wrest the rainbow from a shaft of light or feel the force that bound the cosmos in the weight of an apple. Argued that Earth must be distended at the equator and flattened at the poles, owing to centrifugal force. Mary Wollstonecraft: (1759-1797) wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Struggled to earn a living. Led irregular sex lives. Died tragically in childbirth. Argued that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. First Continental Congress: convention of delegates from 12 of the colonies that met on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia. Called in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts. Published a list of rights and grievances and petitioned King George for redress. Their appeal to the Crown had no effect, and so the Second Continental Congress was called. Second Continental Congress: Convention of delegates from 13 Colonies that met May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia soon after the Revolutionary War had begun. Managed the colonial war effort, moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Acted as de facto national government. Ratified Articles of the Confederation. Zinzendorf: (1700-1760) Observed that anyone who wishes to comprehend God with his mind becomes an atheist. Led a group of German Protestants that wasn?t to reform Lutheranism. J. & C. Wesley: (1703-1791, 1707-1788) Founders of Methodism. Hoped to lower religion to the level of lowest peoples? capacities. Salvation could be had by flinging open the doors to God?s grace. Feeling of salvation, not just true religious salvation. Visited America during Awakening. George Whitefield: (1715-1770) Visited American during Awakening. Preached at outdoor tent revivals all over colonial American. Anglican Protestant minister who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain. One of the founders of Methodism and of the evangelical movement generally. Great Awakening: 1730s, peak in 1740. Religious revival centered in New England. Convert could break with past and conceive new life in God?s Spirit. J. Edwards: (1703-1758) Minister of church in Massachusetts. Very conservative Puritan. Denounced Wesley?s ideas. Vivid descriptions of Hell, weight of sin, wrath of God. Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God. Intellectual. Early President of Princeton. Natural Rights: aka inalienable rights. Considered to be self-evident and universal. Not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular culture or government. Life, liberty, property. French Revolution: Political, intellectual, and social upheaval that began in France in 1789. It resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic. Napoleon: (1769-1821) Brought to power as dictator in 1799. In 1804, called himself Emperor of the French. His military genius and the skill and strength of his armies turned Europe into a playground for his political experiments. Imposed Code Napoleon, which forms the basis of civil and criminal laws of much of Europe. His power was unsustainable however because it was based on victory. Finally defeated at Waterloo in Belgium in June of 1815. Battle of Saratoga: conclusively decided that fate of the British General John Burgoyne?s army in the Revolutionary War. Thought of as a turning point in the war. Fought in New York. Tennis Court Oath: Pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution. Pledge signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on June 20, 1789 in a tennis court. The deputies pledged to continue to meet until a constitution had been written, despite royal prohibition. Founding Fathers: political leaders and statesmen who participated in the American Revolution by signing the Declaration of Independence, taking part in the Revolutionary War, establishing the Constitution, etc. G. Mason: (1725-1792) American Patriot, Statement, and delegate from Virginia to the Constitutional Convention. Called the ?Father of the Bill of Rights? along with James Madison. Pressed for the addition of explicit States rights and individual rights to the Constitution as a balance to the increased federal powers and would not sign the document until the Federalists were convinced to add the first 10 amendments. Das Ding-an-sich: Kant. The thing in itself. Pushed all ideas farther than they?d been taken before. Huge difference between the way the world is and the way we see it. Rationalism: School of belief that sensory experience could cloud rational judgments. The doctrine that reason by itself can determine truth and solve the world?s problems. Tycho Brahe: (1546-1601) Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. Well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist. Refuted the theory of the celestial spheres by showing the celestial heavens were not an immutable or unchanging state of perfection as previously assumed by Aristotle and Ptolemy. Marie Olympe de Gouges: (1748-1793) wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen. Challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She was executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror for attacking the regime of Robespierre and for defending the king and queen of France. Admitted women?s vices and blamed male oppression, along with Wollstonecraft. Spindletop (1901): salt dome oil field located in south Texas. On January 10, 1901, a well at Spindletop struck oil. The new oil field produced more than 100,000 barrels per day. Gulf Oil and Texaco were formed to develop production at Spindletop. No previously discovered oil field in the world had ever been so productive. Generated the Texas Oil Boom. James Watt: (1736-1819) Made major improvements to the steam engine. Solved long-standing problem of efficiency. John Deere: (1804-1886) Blacksmith from Vermont, settled in IL. Built first steel plow in 1837. Founded Deere & Company Steel Plow (1837): Along with McCormick?s mechanical reaper, turned Midwest from desert into the farmland we know today. Revolutionized farming. 20 times more efficient than a sickle. Industrial Revolution: The complex set of economic, demographic, and technological events that began in Western Europe and resulted in the advent of an industrial economy. Robert Clive: (1725-1774) British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. Credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown. C. Vanderbilt: (1794-1877) American entrepreneur. Built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. S. Bolivar: (1783-1830) Venezuelan military leader. Together with Jose de San Martin, he played a key role in Hispanic America?s successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. Bolivia. Sherman?s March (1864/5): Savannah Campaign conducted around Georgia during Nov-Dec 1864 by General Sherman of the Union Army. Began with Sherman?s troop leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture of Savannah on December 21. Inflicted significant damage. Destroyed South?s potential to wage war. Abel Tasman: (1603-1659) Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. Best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the United East India Company. His was the first European expedition known to reach Tasmania and New Zealand and to sight the Fiji Islands. Treaty of Waitangi (1840): Signed on Feb 6 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and various Maori chiefs from New Zealand. Established a British governor in New Zealand, recognized Maori ownership of lands and properties, and gave Maori the rights of British subjects. Total War: Separate class of warfare, with less differentiation between combatants and civilians, as nearly every human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of the belligerent effort. Steam Engine: C. McCormick: (1809-1884) American Inventor. Most noted for the invention of the mechanical reaper. British Colonial India: period of British colonial rule in South Asia between 1858 and 1947. Included areas directly administered by Britain, as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the British Crown. Chicago cow slaughter: Cattle slaughtered and turned into dressed beef, then carcasses sat in cooling rooms before being shipped by rail across North America. 1890s Richard Trevithick: (1771-1833) Increased pressure steam was under and made steam engine more powerful Civil War (1861-65): civil war in the United States of America. 11 Southern slave states declared secession from US and formed Confederate States of America led by Jefferson Davis. 20 mostly-Northern Free states + 5 Border States formed the Union. Confederacy surrendered and slavery was outlawed everywhere in the Nation. Maori: Indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand James Cook: (1728-1779) British explorer, navigator, and cartographer; Made maps of Newfoundland and achieved first European contact with eastern Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Congress of Vienna (1815): conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens von Metternich and held in Vienna from Sept. 1814- June 1815. Objective was to settle many issues arising from French Revolutionary Wars, Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Resulted in redrawing of continent?s political map, establishing boundaries of France, etc, and the creation of spheres of influence. Neo-Europes: Lands in other hemispheres where the environment resembled that of Europe and where immigrants could successfully transplant a European way of life and European culture Klemons von Metternich: (1773-1859) German-Austrian politician and statesman. One of the most important diplomats of his era. Major figured in the negotiations before and during the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paragon of foreign policy managements and a major figure in the development of diplomatic praxis. Battle of Waterloo (1815): fought on June 18 near present-day Belgium. An Imperial French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated. The defeat put an end to Napoleon?s rule as Emperor of the French and marked the end of his Hundred Days? return from Exile Toussaint Louverture: (1743-1803) Leader of the Haitian Revolution, the first successful revolution by a slave population in the Americas. Noted for military genius and political acumen which prepared the way for the created of the independent black state of Haiti. Romanticism: Intellectual and artistic movement that arose in reaction to the Enlightenment?s emphasis on reason. Romantics had a heightened interest in nature and religion, and emphasized emotion and imagination. John Keats: (1795-1821) English Romantic poet. One of the key figures of the second generation of the Romantic movement. Poems, Ode on a Grecian Urn. Georg Hegel: (1770-1831) German philosopher, one of the creators of German idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized Europeans philosophy and was an important precursor to continental philosophy and Marxism. Developed the concept of a mind or spirit that manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole. J. J. Rousseau: (1712-1778) major Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-centruy Romanticism. His political philosophy heavily influenced the French and American Revolutions and the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. Discourse of the Origin of Inequality, On the Social Contract (make cases for democratic government and social empowerment). Percy B. Shelley: (1792-1822) Major English Romantic poet. Reguarded among the finest lyric poets in the English language. Famous for association with Keats, Lord Byron, and M. Shelley. Ozymandias, Ode to a West Wind Louisiana Purchase (1803): Acquisition by the United States of America of France?s claim to Louisiana (828,800 sq. miles). Vital movement in the presidency of Jefferson. Faced opinion as being possibly unconstitutional. Mercantilism: economic theory that holds the prosperity of a state as dependent upon its supply of capital, that the global volume of international trade is ?unchangeable? and that one party may benefit only at the expense of another. Marathas: member of one of the major Hindu Kshatriya (warrior) groups of India and a ruling class of the Indian subcontinent. Enjoy a reputation as soldiers. Manchester Lord Byron: (1788-1824) British poet and leading figure in Romanticism. She Walks in Beauty, Don Juan. One of the greatest British poets. Remains widely read and influential. Celebrated in life for aristocratic excesses including huge debts, numerous love affairs, and self-imposed exile. Beethoven: (1770-1827) German composer and pianist. Crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time. Went deaf. M. Shelley: (1797-1851) British novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for Frankenstein. She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, Romanic poet and philosopher Percy Shelley. Her father was William Godwin and her mother was Mary Wollstonecraft. Goethe: (1749-1832) German writer and polymath. Considered supreme genius of modern German literature side by side with Schiller. His Faust has been called the greatest long poem of modern European literature. Schiller: (1759-1805) German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. Friends with Goethe. Worked together on Die Xenien, a collection of short, satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision. Sturm und Drang: ?Storm and Urge? usually translated as ?Storm and Stress?. Movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s through the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism. Hamann is the ideologue and Goethe was a notable proponent. Conflict of Opposites (Dialectics): Method of argument. The word originates in Ancient Greece and was made popular by Plato. Based on a dialogue between two or more people, who may hold differing views, yet wish to seek the truth through the exchange of their viewpoints while applying reason. Differs from debate and rhetoric. World Spirit (Woltgeist) Zeitgeist: ?the spirit of the times?. General cultural, intellectual, ethical, spiritual, and/or political climate within a nation or even specific groups, along with the general ambiance, morals, sociocultural direction, and mood associated with an era. Goes back to Johann Gottfried herder and other German Romanticists, but is best known in relation to Hegel?s philosophy of history. ?Cottonopolis?: Manchester, England. Bestowed during the 19th century, denotes a metropolis of cotton and cotton mills, as inspired by Manchester?s status as the international center of the cotton and textile processing industries during this time. Cattle drives Wealth of Nations (1776): magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. Reflection on economics at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and argues that free market economies are more productive and beneficial to their societies. Foundation of modern economic theory. Cow Town Colonial Sydney Mocha, Java, etc. Wahhabism: a religious reform movement launched by Muhammad al-Wahhab (1703-1787). Called for a return to Quranic purity and rejecting the legitimacy of the Ottomans? claims to the caliphate. That Wahhabites conquered Arabia and pressed on the borders of Ottoman-controlled Iraq Minneapolis Luddites: 1811-1815: British textile workers went around smashing machinery Franz Kafka: Came from a German speaking Jewish family in Prague. The Trial, The Castle, The Metamorphoses. Undisputed master of tails involving bureaucracies. Wrote abou the nature of white collar work and the life it produced in the 1900s. Karl Marx: (1818-1883) German revolutionary philosopher, championed a new theory of history: that all change was part and product of inevitable class struggles that pitted the rich against those whom they exploited. Wrote a 3 volume description of capitalism. Max Weber: (1864-1920) German sociologist and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself. Dealt with the rationalization and ?disenchantment? he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity. Marcel Duchamp: (1887-1968) French artist, denounced his own expertise in science as mere smattering. But tried to represent Einstein?s world. His painting Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) was an expression of ?time and space through the abstract presentation of motion? and his sculpture Large Glass revealed how closely he had studied relativity. Arts and Crafts Movement: Nineteenth-century artists and intellectuals who argued that the products produced by individual craftsmen were more attractive than and morally superior to the mass, uniform goods produced by industry. J. P. Morgan: (1837-1913) American financier, banker, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. Arranged the merger of General Electric and merged his Federal Steel Company with the Carnegie Steel Company. Leading financier of the Progressive Era. Iron Cage: A sociological concept introduced by max Weber, refers to the increased rationalization inherent in social life, particularly in Western capitalist societies. The ?iron cage? thus traps individuals in systems based purely on teleological efficiency, rational calculation and control. Weber also described the bureaucratization of social order as ?the polar night of icy darkness? Great RR Strike of ?77: began on July 14 in West Virginia and ended 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops. Started in response to the cutting of wages by the B&O Railroad. Striking workers would not allow any of the stock to roll until this second wage cut was revoked. Fred. W. Taylor: (1856-1915) American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. Regarded as the father of scientific management. His ideas were highly influential in the Progressive Era. Francis Wright Industrial Revolution/Factory System: Period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. Average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. William Morris: (1834-1896) English textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist associated with the English Arts and Craft Movement. Important figure in the emergence of socialism in Britain, founding the Socialist League in 1884, but breaking with the movement over goals and methods by the end of that decade. Louis Tiffany: (1848-1933) An American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. Designed stained glass windows and lamps, glass mosaics, blown glass, ceramics, jewelry enamels, and metalwork. Gold Rush of S.F. (1849): Gold was found by James Marshall at Sutter?s Mill in California. Brought 300,000 ?forty-niners? to California in search of gold. Prospectors at first used panning, then moved on to more sophisticated techniques. Gold Rush of Australia (1850) Kimberley Mine: City in South Africa. Historical significance due to its diamond mining past. De Beers: Family of companies that dominate the diamond, diamond mining, diamond trading, and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. Big part of the mining at Kimberley mines. Founded by Cecil Rhodes. Sears Catalog Home: House you could order from Sears Catalog. ?Craftsman house?? Product of the Arts and Crafts movement, which doesn?t make much sense? Proletariat: term used to identify a lower social class, usually the working class. Originally identified as those people who had no wealth other than their children. In Marxist theory, class of a capitalist society that does not have ownership of the means of production and whose only means of subsistence is to sell their labor power for a wage or salary. Dadaism: Early twentieth century European artistic and literary movement that flouted conventional and traditional aesthetic and cultural values by producing works marked by nonsense, travesty, and incongruity. ?Coolies?: Poor laborers from China and India who left their homelands to do hard manual and agricultural work in other parts of the world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Cragside: Country house in England. First house in the world to be lit using hydroelectric power. Country home of Lord Armstrong. ?Kafkaesque?: eponym used to describe concepts, situations, and ideas which are reminiscent of Kafka. Described as ?marked by a senseless, disorienting, often menacing complexity? Victorian era/Gilded Age: Era nagged by unreality. English speaking people had reason to be confident. Changes were breathtaking, most obvious in industry and agriculture. Life had become routinized, no longer took any skill, challenge. Tenements ?Cake Time?: not having time to eat cake because of working? Tent City (Melbourne) Bureaucracy (Typists): The purpose of a bureaucracy is to successfully implement the actions of an organization of any size in achieving its purpose and mission with the greatest efficiency and at the least cost of any resources. Typhus: disease, epidemic struck between 1865 and 1873 in US. Significant killer in the US Civil War. Also occurred during the Great Irish Famine. Petite Bourgeoisie: French term that originally referred to the members of the lower middle social classes in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Mid-19th century, term was used by Marxist theorists to refer to a social class that included shop keepers and government employees Hegel: (1770-1831) German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Marxism. Developed a comprehensive philosophical framework to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge. In particular, he developed a concept of mind or spirit that manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without elimination either. Globalization: The process through which uniform or similar ways of life are spread across the planet. Disenchantment: loss of magic, disappointment Mechanization: Providing human operators with machinery that assists them with the muscular requirements of work. Can also refer to the use of machines to replace human or animal labor. Principles of Scientific Management: (1911) written by Frederick W. Taylor, an American engineer who was a great hunter and destroyer of inefficiency. Wanted the replacement of rule-of-thumb work with precise and uniform specifications. Required a very high level of specialization that would end unemployment. William Armstrong Charlie Chaplin: (1889-1977) English comic actor, film director, and composer of the silent film era. Became one of the best-known film stars in the world. Use Fountain by ?R. Mutt?: 1917 work by Marcel Duchamp. Called a readymade because he made use of an already existing object?in this case a urninal. Coopers workshop/Artisanal Labor ?Wage Slavery?: refers to a situation where a person?s livelihood depends on wages rather than other forms of remuneration, especially when the dependence is total and immediate. Opium wars: First (1839-1842) and Second (1856-1860) were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire. Darwin: (1809-1882) English naturalist. Established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry and proposed the scientific theory that this branching patter of evolution resulted from Natural Selection. Published On the Origin of Species. Nietzsche: (1844-1900) 19th century German philosopher and classical philologist. Wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary, culture, philosophy, and science, displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony, and aphorism. Notable influence in existentialism, nihilism, and postmodernism. Key ideas include the death of God, perspecitivism, ubermensch, the eternal recurrence, and the will to power. JB Lamarck: (1744-1829) French soldier, naturalist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. Primarily remembered for a theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics. First truly cohesive theory of evolution. R. Kipling: (1865-1936) English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India. Received Nobel Prize for literature in 1907. The Jungle Book, White Man?s Burden A. Schopenhauer: (1788-1860) German philosopher known for his pessimism and philosophical clarity. Claimed that the world is fundamentally what we recognize in ourselves as our will. Concluded that emotion, physical, and sexual desires can never be fulfilled. Influenced Nietzsche, Schrodinger, Einstein, Freud, Jung, and Borges. On the Origin of Species: published by Charles Darwin on November 24, 1859 is a work of scientific literature considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Introduced natural selection and diversity of life. Quinine: natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, antimalarial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory properties, and a bitter taste. Discovered by the Indians of Peru and Bolivia. First effective treatment for malaria. Crimean War: (1853-1856) conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. Contest for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Took place on the Crimean peninsula and in Anatolia. Angle-Russian Entente (1907): Signed on August 31, brought shaky British-Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet. Unequal Treaties: term used in specific reference to a number of treaties imposed by Western powers during the 19ths and earlier 20th centuries on Qing Dynasty China and late Tokugawa Japan. The treaties were often signed by these Asian States after suffering military defeat in various skirmishes or wars with the foreign powers, or when there was a threat of military action by those powers. Monroe Doctrine: The policy enunciated by James Monroe in 1823 that the US would oppose further European colonization in the Americas. Maori Wars: Series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand between 1845 and 1872. Fought due to Maori land being sold to settler population. Ended with Treaty of Waitangi. Scramble for Africa: process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I. Business imperialism: Economic domination and exploitation of poorer and weaker countries by richer and stronger states. Ubermensch: concept of Nietzsche. Goal for humanity. This-worldliness, as opposed to the other-worldliness of Christianity. Nietzsche proposed the Ubermensch to be the meaning of the earth. Social Darwinism: The misapplication of Darwin?s biological theories to human societies, often to justify claims of racial superiority and rule by the strong over the weak. Natural selection: The process by which only the organisms best adapted to their environment pass on their genetic material to subsequent generations Chronometer: clock that is precise enough to be used as a portable time standard; can be used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. Developed in the 18th century British raj: name given to the period of British colonial rule in South Asia between 1858 and 1947. (India) Dutch Indonesia French Indochina Master and Slave Morality: central theme of Nietzsche?s works, in particular ON the Genealogy of Morality. Argued master morality weighs action on a scale of good/bad consequences unlike slave morality, which weighs actions on a scale of good or evil intentions. Treaty of Nanjing (1842): signed on August 29, 1842to mark the end of the First Opium War between Great Britain and the Qing dynasty of China. First of the unequal treaties, because Britain had no obligations in return. Belgian Congo: formal title of Congo between King Leopold II?s formal relinquishment of his personal control over the state to Belgium on November 15, 1908 and Congolese independence June 30, 1960. Indirect Rule: Rule by a colonial power through local elites ?Dual Role?/Association King Leopold of Belgium: (1835-1909) second King of the Belgians. Chiefly remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State. Extractive development Florence Nightingale: (1820-1910) celebrated English nurse, writer, and statistician. Pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War. Laid the foundation of professional nursing Inheritance of Acquired Traits: hypothesis that physiological changes acquired over the life of an organism may also be transmitted to offspring. Giraffes! Kopi Luwak: closely connected with the history of coffee production in Indonesia. Civet coffee whose fame spread from locals to Dutch plantation owners. Expensive even in colonial times. G. Garibaldi: (1807-1882) Italian military and political figure. Led the Italian Legion. Dubbed the ?Hero of Two Worlds? in tribute to his military expeditions in both South American and Europe. Considered an Italian National hero. ?Great Game?: term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. Ethiopia
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