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Songs, rhymes, word plays, dramatic play, discussion, puppets, wordless picture books, interactive reading and read alouds are all excellent ways to develop children’s oral language.
research based method for connecting oral language to written language (covers speaking, listening, reading, writing). The Language Experience Approach consists of an experience the entire class shares and then the sharing/writing of the experience together. Teacher models writing or asks students to write on large chart paper. The text is then read aloud by teacher and followed along by all. (can be large or small group, or indiv)
knowledge that words are made up of individual sounds (more global, includes rhyme, syllables) EX: back and stack - do they rhyme?
knowledge about individual phonemes or sounds, tends to be structure focused rather than meaning focused EX: stretching names game - Maria mmmmmmaaaaaarrrrrrriiiiiiiiaaaaa then clap once and say it fast - Maria
the concept that there is a relationship between letters (print) and sounds (oral language). EX: letter-sound association p says p (every letter makes a sound....), visual discrimination (d vs b), and blending letter sounds to form words
This includes the understanding that literacy develops over time and in different contexts. It is also the understanding that literacy progresses from emergent to proficient stages in children
classroom: use variety of children's literature and genres and explore setting, character, plot, point of view, etc.
reading after the teacher – the teacher reads a sentence or page, students echo or repeat what she has read
Teacher reads a book/text aloud and students follow along and are asked to read certain words/phrases/sections of the story. In this way a reading is “shared” by everyone.
***see all pics and print therefore big book or own copies
phonetic analysis (knowing isolated sounds, knowing that speech sounds are tied to letters and the ability to blend/manipulate these sounds);
– structural or morphological awareness (knowing parts of words and types of affixes – suffixes and prefixes--and being able to break words into parts such as“chairs” = “chair” + “s” for plural);
– context clues (using pictures as well as other information in the text to inform your understanding)
the ability to read text accurately, quickly, and with good prosody (like melody of speech) and with effective comprehension
three main levels of questioning to show comprehension of a text
students respond to questions that are literally from the text (students don’t need to think beyond the text) EX: who slept in baby bear's bed?
students use ideas in the text along with their own background information (predicting is an example) EX: what do you think will happen when the bears come home and find goldilocks?
students are asked to make value statements about a piece of literature (judging the outcome is an example) EX: should goldilocks have gone in the bears' house? why or why not?
– gathering ideas related to a topic
refining/changing ideas or concepts in the text (to see again - see it and change ideas)
perfecting the grammar, mechanics, spelling of the text
making the text ready to share with an audience (close to perfect)
Children and Teacher compose a text together, deciding on what to write and how to say it, with the teacher doing the scribing. Parallels shared reading & is usually a whole class endeavor (also is part of the Language Experience Approach discussed earlier).
Students take the “pen in hand” to cooperatively compose and scribe a text. As one child works out a part of the text on chart paper, the others do the same on their wipe – off boards or in their journals.
children scribble and do not think of writing as
made up of letters
children use a letter or word to represent a complete thought, but they do not spell conventionally – In English, students often use a consonant to represent a word with the initial consonant sound (fish is “f” or mine is “m” or“mn”; school is “skl”)
children spell words as they sound, using both vowels and consonants (because is “bicus” and eagle is“egil”)
children spell most words correctly and are able to apply spelling rules at about age 8-9
a very good type of formative reading assessment and we use miscue analysis as part of running records helps teachers determine what areas of reading are causing difficulties in students' comprehension
include the ability to recognize numbers of objects (* * *), the word associated with a number (three), and the symbol that corresponds to the word (3).
include relationships between base, exponent, place value and a variety of ways of representing number concepts
ways that people organize and order the world.
– Young children need to recognize patterns and use their understandings of patterns to make predictions
– making generalizations and using symbols (+, -, =, etc) to
represent mathematical ideas
– Representing and solving problems
helps students understand the world in which they live (2- and 3- dimensions) and understand spatial relationships
help students to reason and solve problems, make connections to the world and communicate mathematically.
a people centered field and should aim to produce good citizens as well as thoughtful learners.
as a way for students to understand both events in the past and the present, especially notions of cause and effect.
original records or first hand accounts such as diaries, eye witness accounts EX: on Sam Houston read speech he gave as senator)
use primary sources to learn about an event or deliver information at a later time –i.e. autobiographies, textbooks (EX on Sam Houston use autobiography describing his time as senator)
our planet and the people who live on it
studies how human groups live and change in relation to the environment.
studies the Earth and its physical environment.
show detailed elevations and use contour lines
but are flat (not raised)
are also flat but use different colors and other details to show land forms
show other things about a place such as
population, vegetation, languages spoken, etc
parallels or horizontal lines of the Earth’s grid (equator is one and cuts through the center of the earth horizontally and has a location of 0degrees)
meridians or vertical lines of the earth that stretch “long-ways” or vertically from the north pole to the south pole. Prime meridian in Greenwich, England has a location of 0 degrees longitude.
Greenwich, England has a location of 0 degreeslongitude
production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
individuals control the production of goods based on supply and demand.
major cash crop and helped shape TX history, but was almost completely destroyed by the boll weevil in the early 1900s
one of the largest ranches in the world
has diversified and computers and electronics are now the 2nd largest goods export (2nd to chemical manufacturing
known as the “Queen of the Missions” it is in San Antonio and all the outer walls, dwellings, workshops, and mill are still in place
the world’s tallest obelisk was built in Houston to commemorate the Battle of San Jacinto (brought Texas independence from Mexico)
promoting alternative cropsincluding peanuts and sweet potatoes
hypothesizing, observing, classifying, measuring and communicating
students should engage in process of science (skills and process ie understanding what to do more important than outcome)
safelaboratory environment includes
• Post all safety rules
• Model safe procedures
• Use proper protective equipment
• Clean work surfaces and wash hands after activities• Never return unused chemicals to containers
• Never allow students to ingest any material
• Inferring and predicting
• Using variables
• Representing data
Scientists use processes and criteria to investigate and interpret
the natural world
those that can change (independent variables)
author of Silent Spring for environmental safeguards against chemicals
ratio of mass/volume (helps explain why things sink/float)
states that in ordinary chemical reactions, matter is neither created nor destroyed but only changed from one form to another
states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest unless a force acts on it to move it
states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
the chemical process that captures, converts, and stores solar energy
head, thorax &abdomen
the theory that all land masses were once joined together as a single unit called Pangea and have since moved apart to form the 7 continents
explains that the upper layer of the earth’s surface is made of 20 huge plates that move in different directions causing fault boundaries (get earthquakes along these boundaries)
rocks formed from cooled magma such as granite
rocks formed by pressing sediment together such as quartz
rocks formed from other types of rocks that have been heated and pressed together such as marble
collecting and falling of water from clouds to earth
movement of surface and groundwater in streams, lakes, oceans
from the water’s surface due to heat and wind
water vapor in the air transforms to water droplets and forms clouds
Mercury― Venus― EARTH― Mars
― Jupiter― Saturn― Uranus― Neptune
a satellite of our planet that revolves around the earth and reflects the sun’s light. The moon has 9 phases each month, depending on its position.
Teacher supports students as they apply reading strategies and skills to read a text
Teacher- teaches reading strategies/skills, provides scaffolding, monitors student reading
Multiple copies of text needed, teacher controls reading experience
The manner in which words are arranged to form sentences.
Afirst-gradeteacherwhoisworkingwith a group of beginning readersgives each student a set of wordcards. On each card is printed a wordthat the students have already learnedto read (e.g., “he,” “she,” “sees,”“loves,” “has,” “the,” “a,” “dog,”“cat” and “pail”). The teacher showsthe students how to arrange the cardsto create a statement (e.g., “she seesthe cat”).
Whichofthefollowingcivilizationsis most closely associated with thesystematic study of geometry and thedevelopment of mathematical proofs
Mr.Samoawillbehelpingsixthgraders understand the characteristicsof limited and unlimited governments.Which of the following conceptsshould the students be familiar withbefore he begins the lesson?
WhichofthefollowingdidLyndonB.Johnson, the thirty-sixth president ofthe United States, accomplish duringhis tenure in Congress (1937 to 1961)?
Mustering congressional support forrural electrification, the space programand civil rights legislation
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