This quote is by whom? "Anglo-Saxon England was born of warfare, remained forever a military society, and came to its end in battle."
What is the picture on page 2 of?
An aerial view of Stonehenge (c. 3000-1848 B.C.), located near Salisbury, England
What are the pictures on page 3 of?
Page from the Book of Kells (8th century)
The Board of Trinity College, Dublin. Photograph by the Green Studio Ltd, Dublin.
Also a picture of Stonehenge.
What is Stonehenge made of?
Great sandstone blocks and smaller bluestone pillars.
Name the 8 notable things Great Britain has produced.
Theory of Gravity
When was the Magna Carta issued?
When did the Americans rebel from Britain?
What is the significance of the Legacy of English common law?
There is an emphasis on personal rights and freedom which made America what it is today.
What three major things did Britain inspire America with?
English parliamentary government
What is Britain?
A relatively small island.
Britain has been invaded and settled many times by what 6 groups of people?
Angles and Saxons
When did Greek travelers visit Britain, and what did they find?
4th century BC, they found the Celts.
What are Celts?
Tall blond warriors settled in Britain
Who were the Brythons?
A group within the Celtic community who gave a form of their name to the country Britain.
What is animism?
The religion practiced by the Celts, it comes from the Latin word for 'spirit'.
Where did the Celts see spirits?
Rivers, trees, stones, ponds, fire, thunder
What are three characteristics of the Celtic spirit gods?
They controlled all aspects of existence
They had to be constantly satisfied
They used intermediaries to demand ritual dances and human sacrifice from their people
Who were intermediaries for the Celtic spirit gods to the people?
Priests called Druids
Where is Stonehenge?
The Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire
What is one theory of the purpose of Stonehenge?
It was used by Druids for religious rites concerning lunar and solar cycles.
What writers are influenced by Celt mythology?
Modern Irish and English writers
Who was Sir Thomas Malory and what did he do?
A prisoner in the fifteenth century who gathered Celtic legends about the warrior Arthur while he was in jail.
These stories were combined with chivalric legends from the Continent to produce Le Morte Darthur.
What was Le Morte Darthur about?
The king who ultimately became the embodiment of English values.
Who was William Butler Yeats?
20th century poet who used Celtic myths in his poetry and plays to tell the Irish of their lost heroic past.
How were Celtic and Anglo-Saxon stories different?
Anglo-Saxon stories were dominated by males, while Celtic stories featured strong female characters.
Who said this quote? "All the Britons dye their bodies with woad, which produces a blue color, and this gives them a more terrifying appearance in battle. They wear their hair long, and shave the whole of their bodies except the head and the upper lip."
What is the picture on page 6?
A monk's cell (7th/8th century) on Skellig Michael, off the coast of Kerry, Ireland.
Who was Queen Maeve of Connacht in Ireland?
A Celtic female hero who led her troops in epic battle over the ownership of a white herd bull.
What was special about the white herd bull?
Its back was broad enough for 50 children to play upon.
Describe Celtic stories.
A 'leap into sunlight'
They take you to enchanted lands ruled by magic and imagination
What three things are Celtic stories full of?
Passionate love affairs
Who were the first British settlers?
What significance did the magical Celtic religion have?
It influenced the lives of the Celts
Their beliefs survive in Celtic mythology
Who were "The Great Administrators"?
What did Julius Caesar do in 55 BC?
Led an invasion on Britain that began Rome's conquer of the island
What happened about 100 years after Julius Caesar invaded Britain?
Claudius the emperor finally conquered the British
What did Rome provide for Britain?
Armies and organization to protect Britain from invasion for several hundred years
Built network of roads
Great defensive wall
What did European missionaries accomplish in Britain?
Established Christianity as a religion which would later become a unifying force of the country; the old Celtic religion vanished.
What is the monument on page 7?
Hadrian's Wall, built in AD 122
73 miles long
Who was Boadicea?
The queen of a Briton tribe, she was flogged by Romans after they plundered her dead husband's property
She led a retaliation
Who said the following quote? "Boadicea's tribe, at once the most powerful and hitherto the most submissive, was moved to frenzy against the Roman invaders.."
Winston S. Churchill
Who said this quote? "They flew to arms. Boadicea found herself at the head of a numerous army, and nearly all the Britons within reach rallied to her standard?
Winston S. Churchill
Who said this quote? "There followed an up-rush of hatred from the abyss, which is a measure of the cruelty of the conquest. It was a scream of rage against invincible oppression..."
Winston S. Churchill
Who said this quote? "Her monument on the Thames Embankment opposite Big Ben reminds us of the harsh cry of liberty or death which has echoed down the ages."
Winston S. Churchill
What might have happened if the Romans had stayed in Britain?
Londoners might today speak Italian
By what time did Rome evacuate Britain, and how many years had they been there?
More than 400 years
What legacies did Rome impart to Britain after evacuating?
Roads, walls, villas, and public baths
No central government
A country of separate clans
How did the Romans leaving affect Britain?
Made the island weak and susceptible to invasions from German areas of Continental Europe.
Who attacked Britain mid-5th century?
Angles and Saxons from Germany
Jutes from Denmark
Both north of England, crossed North Sea
What effect did the migration of Anglo-Saxons into Britain have?
Their language became the dominant language and the land became known as "Enga land" or England.
What was the response of the Celts to the Anglo-Saxon immigration?
They put up a strong resistance but eventually retreated into Wales (far west England)
Describe Wales today as affected by the Celts.
Carries traces of Celtic culture, esp. language
Who was the Welsh chieftain Arthur?
A heroic Celtic leader, developed in legend as Britain's "once and future king"
What was Anglo-Saxon Britain first like?
Divided into separate independent principalities, each with a king
Not politically unified
What did King Alfred of Wessex do? Also known as Alfred the Great, r. 871-899
Led the Anglo-Saxons against the invading Danes
Gave England a true sense of becoming a nation
Who were the Danes?
Fierce Vikings, crossed the North Sea in dragon-prowed boats in the 8th and 9th centuries
They plundered and destroyed everything in their path and settled in northeast and central England
What are the pictures on page 8?
A picture stone (8th century) from Gotland showing a Viking ship under sail.
Statens Historiska Museer, Stockholm.
Also a gold and enamel jewel (9th century) thought to have belonged to King Alfred. (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
What was a contributing factor to the unification of the Anglo-Saxons?
The gradual reemergence of Christianity in Britain from Irish and Continental missionaries, first converting the kings
What did Christianity do for Britain?
It provided a common faith and common system of morality and right conduct
It linked England to the rest of Europe
What did Anglo-Saxons fight for under Alfred and Christianity?
They fought for...
To protect them from the Danes
What did Alfred's reign begin?
The shaky dominance of Wessex kings in southern England
Name two of Alfred's notable descendants who carried on his battle against the Danes.
Ethelfleda (military leader and strategist)
How and when were both the Anglo-Saxons and Danes defeated?
William, the Duke of Normandy, and the Normans invaded from northwestern France in 1066.
Also known as the Norman Conquest.
What did Anglo-Saxon society develop from?
Kinship groups led by a strong chief
What did Anglo-Saxons do?
Maintained local governments
Created fine crafts, esp. with metal
What were monasteries, what was their purpose?
They were centers of learning, they preserved works from the older oral tradition
What language gained respect as a written language other than the Church's Latin?
What is the picture on page 9?
The coronation of King Harold, from the Bayeux Tapestry (11th century) from the Musee de la Tapisserie, Bayeux.
What did evidence from Anglo-Saxon wills show about women's rights?
They inherited and held property, retaining control after marrying.
What was the term for a gift of money and land from a prospective husband to a woman?
morgengifu, "the morning-gift"
What effect did Christianity have on women's opportunities?
They could join religious communities
Become powerful abbesses (women from noble families, would run a monastery and nunnery)
Who was the abbess of Whitby (present-day Yorhshire) and when did she live?
She accumulated an immense library
Turned Whitby into a center of learning
What happened to Whitby Abbey?
Sacked by Vikings in the ninth century, ruins are still visible today
What pictures are on page 10?
A silver figurine of a Viking woman
A silver dish from the Sutton Hoo burial treasure (7th century)
What did archaeologists discover in 1939?
A ship-grave with treasure, buried with a great king or noble warrior, in Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, England
What kinds of things were in the Sutton Hoo treasure?
A sword, treasures of gold, silver, and bronze - purse, coins, helmet, buckle, serving vessels, and a harp
What is Sutton Hoo reminiscent of?
The burial mound built in memory of the king Beowulf
What does Sutton Hoo show about the Anglo-Saxons' way of life?
They were not barbarious, or rich; their lives were ruled by law and order
Loyalty to leaders was important
How was success measured for Anglo-Saxons?
Gifts from the leader
How does Beowulf make his name and gain riches?
He defeats the monsters who try to destroy King Hrothgar
How did Anglo-Saxons stay safe from the frightning, cold wilderness?
They stayed loyal to the group
Lived close to their animals and close to other families
What picture is on page 11?
A reconstructed Anglo-Saxon village in West Stow, Suffolk, England, with a communal hall to the right
Describe the old Anglo-Saxon religion.
Dark, fatalistic, similar to Norse or Scandinavian mythology, originated in Germany
Who was Odin?
The Norse god of death, poetry, and magic
He could communicate with spirits
He was associated with burial rites and ecstatic trances
Important for both poetry and religious mysteries
Where does the word Wednesday come from?
The Norse god Odin, called Woden by the Anglo-Saxons
Who was Thunor?
The Anglo-Saxon version of the Norse god of thunder and lightning, Thor
His sign was the hammer and possibly the twisted cross (swastika)
Where does the word Thursday come from?
Thunor or Thor 's name (Thor's day)
What does a dragon symbolize in Anglo-Saxon mythology?
Protector of a treasure
A personification of "death the devourer" The guardian of the grave mound (of treasures and warriors' ashes)
What were the main concerns of the Anglo-Saxon religion?
Ethics - earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship.
Who was Coifi and what did he do?
He was the Anglo-Saxon chief priest, he advised King Edwin to give up the old gods and accept the new religion of Christianity
Who quoted Coifi and in what literary work?
The Venerable Bede, in Ecclesiastical History of the English People
What image is on page 12?
A pendant depicting Thor's hammer, from the National Museum, Reykjavik
What was the Anglo-Saxon communal hall?
A place for shelter and council meetings
A place for storytellers and their audience
What were bards?
Skilled storytellers who sang of gods and heroes
What importance did poetry have?
It was as important as fighting, hunting, farming, or lovin'.
What instrument did poets sing with?
What sources did storytellers use?
Heroic tales about concerns of people under threat of war, disease, or old age.
What image is on page 14?
A knight, from a chess set carved from walrus ivory (12th century) from the British Museum in London.
What poem stresses the transience of a life frequently identified with the cold and darkness of winter?
Why were Anglo-Saxon bards so highly honored?
Their religion offered no hope of an afterlife; therefore, only fame and its echo in poetry protected against death. Bards had the skill to preserve fame in the community's memory.
What modern Argentine writer imagines the last Anglo-Saxon?
Jorge Luis Borges
Why was Ireland lucky in the fifth century?
It was not overrun by the Germanic invaders
When was the whole of Celtic Ireland converted to Christianity?
Who was Patricius (Patrick)?
A Romanized Briton who was seized by Irish slave traders as a teen and held captive by a sheepherder in Ireland for six years; he escaped captivity, became a bishop, and returned to convert his captors.
What was life like in Ireland from 432-750?
It was a Golden Age; monks founded monasteries which would become sanctuaries of learning for scholars from England and Europe.
What was described by Winston Churchill's words "burned and gleamed through the darkness"?
What image is on page 15?
The Opening of St. Matthew's Gospen, from the Lindisfarne Gospels (7th century).
What hope did poets and bards provide?
The possibility that heroic deeds would be preserved in the society's memory.
What hope did Christianity supply?
The monasteries were centers of learning as in the Middle Ages
In England, cultural and spiritual influence of monasteries existed along with the Anglo-Saxon religion
They preserved not only Latin and Greek classics but also popular literature like Beowulf
What was a monastery's writing room called?
A scriptorium - in a covered walkway open to a court
What is a cloister?
A covered walkway
Describe a scribe writing.
Writing with a quill pen on sheepskin
What was the language of "serious" study in England until King Alfred's time?
Who instituted the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and what was it?
A long running history of England from early days to 1154
What happened partly because of King Alfred's efforts?
English gained respect as a language of culture
The Old English stories and poetry preserved by monks became great works of literature
Who talks about scribes writing?
Want to see the other 117 Flashcards in The Anglo-Saxons?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!