Define the term nutrient and outline what are major and minor nutrients
Nutrients: Substances in food required for growth, maintenance and repair. Major nutritents are carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Minor nutrients are vitamins and minerals.
Is water a nutrient?
Nutritional advice changes all the time depending on availability and guidelines. What are the
current guidelines overall for those living in the UK?
Current nutritional advice: Plenty of fruits or vegetables, whole grains and avoid junk food.
Outline the roles of the two types of dietary fibre and what foods contain high amounts?
Cellulose (insoluble): 70% – Affects rate of digestion e.g. broccoli and spinach. Increases bulk of
stool. If someone has diarrhoea they may be recommended more insoluble cellulose.
Non-cellulose (soluble) : 30% – Absorbs water into GI tract. If someone has constipation.
Increases faecal bulk & softens stool – Binds with bile salts and free fatty acids which leads to the
elimination of cholesterol. Slows down rate of digestion
What is the main role of glucose in the body? Where does excess glucose get converted to?
Glucose - fuel used by cells to make ATP. Neurons and RBCs ~ entirely on glucose; neurons die quickly without glucose. Some cells may use fats for energy. Excess glucose converted to glycogen or fat and stored.