Graph of Plasma glucose concentration (mg/ 100 mL) vs. Glucose filtered, reabsorbed, or excreted (mg/min)
Filtration is inversely related to molecular weight
T(m) = max reabsorption rate
Starling Forces: NFP
NFP = Net Filtration Pressure Pc = Pressure in the capillary Pif = Pressure of the interstitial fluid (Pc-Pif) = Net Hydro Pressure (πc-πif) = Net "oncotic" pressure
NFP = (Pc - Pif) - (πc-πif)
Starling Forces: Oncotic Pressure
Oncotic pressure (PO) is determined by the concentrations of albumin and sodium in the plasma (capillary) and the interstitial fluid
NFP: arterial and venule ends
The NFP at the arterial and venule ends of a capillary are not the same
Mechanisms of Edema
1. Increased capillary pressure
2. Decreased plasma proteins (if I dont have enough albumin, water is not going to come back in)
3. Increased capillary permeability (albumin is crossing that capillary membrane, we don't want that to happen)
4. Blockage of lymph return (then we don't have negative pressure in the interstitial fluid from the sucking of that lymph system)
Glomerular filtration rate
Afferent arteriole = IN, Efferent arteriole = OUT
1. If we constrict the afferent arteriole, the filtration will decrease because I now don't have as much blood coming through. 2. If we constrict the efferent arteriole, the filtration will increase because I now don't have as much blood coming through. 3. If there is a kidney stone stuck in a ureter, the filtration rate will decrease because we don't have uribe leaving the kidney, the pressure in Bowman's capsule increased (and the NFP decreased)
Normally, NFP is +, which means water and solutes will move from plasma/blood/capilary into the bowman's capsule
Abnormal fluid accumulation in the interstitial space of tissue
The space within a vessel
Uses energy to cause a concentration gradient.
Is caused by concentration gradient that's already there
moving in opposite directions
solute moves through the membrane channel in the same direction as the driving ion.
junction between cells when adjacent to plasma membrane proteins join to form an impermeable barrier
help transport molecules from inside cell into blood
Production of Concentrated Urine: descending loop of Henle
The interstitial fluid of the medulla is more concentrated than the cortex. Solutes (NaCl, glucose, AA) and water are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Water flows from the filtrate into the interstial fluid of the cortex and medulla and the filtrate moves down the descending loop of Henle.
Production of Concentrated Urine: ascending loop of Henle
Water does NOT cross in the ascending loop of Henle. Solutes are removed via active transport. The body uses ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) to induce the reabsorption of water, which results in concentrating urine. The Vasa Recta allows doe the return of absorbed solutes to the body. Blood in the Vasa Recta flows in the opposite direction of filtrate in loop of Henle.
Hormone Class, Trigger, Effect, Net Result, and Disease Name if not functioning: ADH (Vasopressin)
ADH controls plasma osmolarity Hormone Class: Peptide Trigger: High Plasma Osmolarity (Dehydrated) Effect: Open aquaporins in DCT and the collecting duct (reabosrbing just water) Net Result: Plasma osmolarity reduced to normal levels (no long dehydrated) Disease Name if not functioning: Diabetes insipidus (diabetes = water, insipidus = tasteless/dilute) Why? We are not reabsorbing the water
Hormone Class, Trigger, Effect, Net Result, and Disease Name if not functioning: Aldosterone
Aldosterone increases Na+ and H2O reabsorb, thus it doesn't affect [Na+] Hormone Class: Steroid Trigger: Low blood volume in afferent arteriole triggers reninangiotensin system -> adrenals Effect: Increased expression Na+K+ pumps Net Result: Blood volume elevated to normal levels Disease Name if not functioning: Addison's Disease (Very low blood volume and very low sodium in their blood)
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