Constantinople had been captured by Turks in 1453, which cut trade routes to East. Greek scholars fled to Italy with their classical knowledge and materials. ("end" of Middle Ages, "beginning" of Renaissance)
1st country to break with the Church
(Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church to divorce and remarry)
# of City States in Italy
The 3 Humanist Principles
individual worth (improving humans through study)
strong commitment to public science
development of skills and talents
Patriarchal (men in charge)
daughters marry in mid-teens to benefit both families
sons not independent until their 20s or 30s
ruling family of Grand Duchy of Tuscany
"despots" or dictators
"new learning"; "civilized"
emphasize humans, their abilities & achievements
founder of Medici dynasty
became a banker by ignoring Church's teachings --> provided funds for a changing economy
used family fortune for politics
aka "Lorenzo the Magnificant"
excellent diplomat who balanced power
great patron of the arts
banking family that refused the pope --> the pope ordered him killed, but the assassination attempt failed
used bribery, torture, murder, blackmail
Rodrigo Borgias becomes Pope, marries of children to powerful families
Secularism (focuses on present, not afterlife)
Classics (inspired by Ancient Greece and Rome
Individualism (learning human affairs)
Power (exploration, planning, music, map making)
realistic figures in unnatural backgrounds
science taught art linear perspective
great artist supported by Lorenzo Medici
works show use of classical subject matter and the effect of motion (Renaissance techniques)
"fresh", type of natural painting
painting use of light and shadow
"Geography is Destiny"
the rich lands of Italy were an advantage because richer soil means more CA$H MONEY
focusing on the human individual
author of "The Prince" - ideas of how a monarch should rule
painting style "without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane."- da Vinci
supported by the patronage of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
friend of both Michelangelo & da Vinci
principal painter of the Medici family.
His works represent Renaissance style - use of classical subject matter and in the effect of motion that he achieves.
famous works: Primavera and The Birth of Venus were created for the home of the Medicis
The "Virtruvian Man"
Drawing by Leonardo da Vinci
The School of Fontainebleu
artists at Francis I's palace
group of artists decorated the royal palace
characterized by refined elegance, lots of elaborate stuff
work incorporated allegory
greatest of German artists
his patron was Emperor Maximilian I
father of Humanism
spurred by humanism
founded schools for girls and boys
denied all political rights
Christine de Pisan
First Lady of the World
a diplomat; a writer
established girls schools
Papal States (Rome)
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