THE 7 2011 Online Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. If you wanted to gauge a person's mastery and knowledge in a specific area, such as mathematics , you would need to administer a. an achievement test b. an aptitude test, such as the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) c. a self-report inventory d. an intelligence test, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) ____ 2. Leo wants to become a fighter pilot, and he is asked to complete a test that is designed to determine if he has the interests and the values typically found in fighter pilots. In this example, the test that Leo is asked to complete would be classified as a. an aptitude test b. an achievement test c. a personality test d. a non-standardized test ____ 3. If a test yields nearly identical scores when it is retaken after a 2-month interval, the test is said to be a. valid b. reliable c. significant d. standardized ____ 4. Professor Ridley is known for giving fair exams that include only test items for which the student should have been prepared. Professor Ridley's exams can be said to be high in a. criterion-related validity b. content validity c. predictive validity d. standardized validity ____ 5. Silas took the College Aptitude Test (CAT) when he was a junior in high school, and he attained a very high score on the test. When Silas was in college, he was suspended his first year, and when he was readmitted, he ended up dropping out because he was doing poorly in all his classes. When Silas went for career counseling, he retook the CAT, and again he earned a very high score. Based on Silas' experience, you might conclude that the CAT has a. been poorly standardized b. high reliability, but low validity c. high validity, but low reliability d. low reliability, and low validity ____ 6. Althoug h there may be some question as to exactly what IQ tests measure, there is little question that they tend to be consistent measures, that is, they are high in a. predictability b. validity c. generalizability d. reliability ____ 7. In comparison to most other types of psychological tests, IQ tests tend to be a. low in reliability b. similar in terms of reliability c. exceptionally reliable d. reliable for children, but unreliable for adults ____ 8. The I Q of someone classified as severely mentally retarded is approximately a. 85 to 95 b. 70 to 85 c. 50 to 70 d. 20 to 35 ____ 9. In which of the following cases is the correlation between IQ scores the lowest? a. non-twin siblings reared together b. non-twin siblings reared apart c. fraternal twins reared together d. adoptive siblings reared together ____ 10. Whose research and conclusions triggered an emotional debate over ethnic differences in intelligence? a. Arthur Jensen b. David Wechsler c. Francis Galton d. Alfred Binet ____ 11. Which of the following researchers proposed the notion of stereotype vulnerability to explain ethnic differences in IQ scores? a. Sandra Scarr b. Arthur Jensen c. Claude Steele d. Robert Sternberg ____ 12. The correlation between reaction times and IQ scores is a. very high (greater than 0.90) b. moderate (between 0.50 and 0.60) c. modest (between 0.20 and 0.30) d. very week (less than 0.10) ____ 13. According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is efficient at processing information and who performs well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, should score high in a. creat ive intelligence b. practical intelligence c. all three areas of intelligence d. analytic intelligence ____ 14. Glenys dropped out of high school 40 years ago, found a job, and worked her way up in the company. She has been in her present position for over twenty years, and everyone in the company agrees that she is the one with the most "street smarts" about how to deal effectively with both customers and suppliers. According to Robert Sternb e rg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Glenys shows high a. analytical intelligenc e b. creative intelligence c. practical intelligence d. analytical, practical, and creative intelligence ____ 15. Dr. Fuller needs a really creative student to assist with the design of a new research project. She's asked to see the IQ scores of a number of students so she can use the scores to choose her new research assistant. What does Dr. Fuller need to know befo r e making her decision? a. Scores on some IQ tests are more related to creativity than others. b. Creativity is related to intelligence, but only weakly. c. Grade point averages would be just as good a predictor of creativity, and probably easier to obtai n. d. There is no relationship at all between intelligence and creativity. ____ 16. Rita has just finished a large meal at her favorite restaurant. Although she is quite full, when the waiter brings the dessert tray, she orders a piece of chocol ate cheesecake. In this instance, Rita's behavior is LEAST consistent with a. incentive theories of motivation b. the expectancy-value theory of motivation c. the self-awareness theory of motivation d. drive theories of motivation ____ 17. How does the glucostatic idea account for the fact that diabetics feel hungry much of the time? a. Diabetics have high blood sugar, which stimulates hunger. b. Diabetics have low blood sugar, which stimulates hunger. c. Diabetics have high insulin levels , which stimulates hunger. d. Diabetics' cells do not take glucose from the blood effectively. ____ 18. Which of the following is a measure of weight that controls for variations in height and is increasingly used in research on obesity? a. set point b. reaction range c. body mass index d. obesity quotient ____ 19. The fact that the correlation in weight between identical twins reared apart is higher than that between fraternal twins reared together suggests that weight is a. influenced more by genetics than by environmental factors b. influenced more by environmental factors than by genetics c. affected equally by genetics and environmental factors d. not affected by either genetics or environmental factors ____ 20. Which of the following effects has NOT been supported by research? a. Viewing erotic materials tends to cause sex crimes. b. Viewing erotic materials changes ones attitudes to be more liberal about sexual practices. c. Viewing erotic materials may make s ome people dissatisfied with their own sexual interactions. d. Viewing erotic materials elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure. ____ 21. According to the results of the Featured Study on culture and mating preferences, which of the following characteristics in a potential mate is likely to be rated more highly by women than by men? a. status b. kindness c. youthfulness d. physical attractiveness ____ 22. The results from the Featured Study on culture and mating preferences tend to support which of the following theories of sexual motivation? a. observational learning b. operant conditioning c. psychoanalytic theory d. evolutionary theory ____ 23. The need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, and meet high standards of excellence is referred to as a. an intellect motive b. a power motive c. a competence motive d. an achievement motive ____ 24. Stefan is an individual who has a high need for achievement. His boss has three jobs that need to be completed; one job is easy, one job is moderately difficult, and one job is extremely difficult. If Stefan is allowed to choose which of the three jobs he will undertake for his boss, you would expect that Stefan will a. maximize the task difficulty by selecting the hardest job b. choose the easy job, to maximize his chance for success c. choose the moderately difficult job d. ask his boss to make the choice, to avoid a potentially negative evaluation ____ 25. Ezra is watching a movie, and as the star of the movie tries to deal with various difficulties, Ezra finds himself laughing uncontrollably, with tears streaming down hi s face. These reactions are part of the a. physiological component in Ezra's emotional experience b. cognitive component in Ezra's emotional experience c. behavioral component in Ezra's emotional experience d. objective component in Ezra's emotio nal experience ____ 26. Imagine that an individual has taken medication that has lowered his or her overall level of autonomic arousal. If this person reports less intense emotional experiences, it would provide some support for a. the Cannon-Bard theor y of emotion b. the common-sense view of emotion c. the facial feedback hypothesis d. the James-Lange theory of emotion ____ 27. Because the evolutionary theorists propose that there are only a few innate prim ary emotions, the great variety of emotions are held to arise from a. learning new reactions later in life b. suppressing natural reactions to stimuli c. forming new associations to original cues d. blends of primary emotions and variations in intensity ____ 28. Premises are to conclusions as a. legs are to a table b. a pencil is to a pen c. a bird is to feathers d. a floppy disk is to a computer ____ 29. The statement, "If marijuana is legalized, then the next thing you know heroin w ill be legal," is an example of which of the following? a. a weak analogy b. slippery slope c. irrelevant reasoning d. circular reasoning ____ 30. Which theorists agree that autonomic arousal precedes the conscious experience of emotion? a. James, Lange, and Schachter b. Cannon, Bard, and Atkinson c. Tomkins, Izard, and Plutchik d. Maslow, McClelland, and Murray ____ 31. Your text defined stress as a. any unpleasant event b. the responses we make to unpleasant events c. illness-inducing behavior d. circumstances that are perceived as threatening ____ 32. Which of the following would NOT qualify as a frustrating event? a. being stuck in traffic b. getting a "B" on an exam when you wanted an "A" c. finishing a term paper hours before you expected to finish it d. finding that your car has not yet been repaired even though you left it hours ago ____ 33. The correct order for the three stages of Selye's general adaptation syndrome is a. primary, secondary, tertiary b. recognition, reaction, evaluation c. alarm, adaptation, recovery d. alarm, resistance, exhaustion ____ 34. A police officer gives you a speeding ticket, and you take out your frustration and anger on your roommate. This diversion of anger to a substitute target is known as a. catharsis b. displacement c. reaction formation d. overcompensation ____ 35. Juli's father borrowed her car to run some errands. When he returned the car the taillight was broken. Juli was angry, but she didn't say anything to her father. Later, when her son dropped cookie crumbs on the floor, Juli yelled at him and sent him to his room with no supper. Juli's behavior toward her son illustrates the concept of a. overcompensation b. displacement c. self-indulgence d. undoing ____ 36. In a study of survivors who were directly exposed to the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, researchers found a. close to one-half (48%) developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) b. about one-quarter (24%) developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) c. approximately one-third (34%) developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) d. just over two-thirds (68%) developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ____ 37. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Type A individuals? a. They are competitive. b. They feel there's never enough time to get everything done. c. They are easygoing and sociable. d. They are strongly achievement-motivated. ____ 38. Alice maintains a diet high in serum cholesterol, eating an abundance of eggs, cheese, butter, and shellfish. Alice may well be increasing her risk of a. heart disease b. emphysema c. arthritis d. hypertension ____ 39. Luigi knows that the surgeon general has determined that smoking increases the risk of various types of cancers, however he is sure he won't develop cancer. Luig i's pattern of behavior illustrates the idea that a. many health-impairing habits creep up on us b. people tend to rationalize high-risk behaviors by pointing out healthy habits that offset their unhealthy habits c. people often underestimate the risks a ssociated with their own health-impairing behaviors d. people believe the risks associated with health-impairing habits are overstated by media sources ____ 40. The fact that stress lies in the eye of the beholder illustrates the theme of a. multifactorial causation b. empiricism c. psychology in a sociohistorical context d. the subjectivity of experience ____ 41. A father suggests that his son's low marks in school are due to the child's laziness. The father has made a. an external attribution b. a distinctive attribution c. an internal attribution d. a situational attribution ____ 42. Tally just heard that her neighbor, Rupert, was involved in an automobile accide nt. If Tally concludes that Rupert's reckless driving habits caused the accident, she has a. made an internal attribution b. made a self-serving attribution c. made an external attribution d. been influenced by an illusory correlation ____ 43. When Darren's classmate earns a "D" on an essay for their history class, Darren figures the classmate is unmotivated, and should have spent more time working on the paper and less time socializing. The classmate is disappointed with her grade, but she kno w s she didn't have much time to work on the essay because she had to work double-shifts the entire week before the paper was due. The different attributions for the low grade on the essay illustrate a. the actor-observer bias b. defensive attributions c. the self-serving bias d. cognitive dissonance ____ 44. Attributing one's success on an exam to one's intelligence and one's failure to the unfairness of the test is an example of a. a defensive attribution b. an actor-observer bias c. a self-serving bias d. the fundamental attributional error ____ 45. Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning attitudes? a. People are more likely to be attracted to someone with dissimilar attitudes. b. People are more likely to be attracted to someone with similar attitudes. c. People are equally likely to be attracted to people with similar and dissimilar attitudes. d. People are not attracted to others based on their attitudes because attitudes an d attraction are independent. ____ 46. According to Hazan and Shaver's model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are MOST likely to report more intense emotional highs and lows in their romantic r elationships? a. secure b. insecure c. avoidant d. anxious-ambivalent ____ 47. According to evolutionary psychologists, which of the following characteristics in a prospective mate would be the LEAST important consideration for a woman seeking a mate? a. ambition b. social status c. financial potential d. physical attractiveness ____ 48. Which of the following dimensions of an attitude refers to whether the attitude relates to an issue that can affect an individual's personal outcomes? a. strength b. ambivalence c. accessibility d. vested interest ____ 49. Which of the following characteristics is MOST likely to enhance the credibility of the source of a persuasive message? a. height b. friendliness c. trustworthiness d. physical attractiveness ____ 50. A marketing firm has been hired to develop new advertisements for the "Safe and Sober" campaign. The goal of the campaign is to persuade people to drive more carefully. The firm is considering two different television commercials. One commercial shows graphic accidents with actual accident victims; the other shows controlled collisio n s with plastic crash dummies. Based on the research into factors which influence persuasion, you should predict that a. the commercial with the plastic crash dummies will arouse more fear, and therefore be more effective b. the commercial with the plastic crash dummies will arouse less fear, and therefore be more effective c. both commercials should arouse equivalent levels of fear, and therefore neither commercial will be effective d. the commercial with the graphic accidents will arouse more fear, and therefore be more effective ____ 51. Cognitive dissonance theory accounts for Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) results by proposing that subjects paid a. $1 to lie felt little cognitiv e dissonance b. $1 to lie had sufficient justification for their counterattitudinal behavior c. $20 to lie felt high cognitive dissonance d. $20 to lie had sufficient justification for their counterattitudinal behavior and experienced little dissonance ____ 52. Lewis has agreed to proofread a long legal brief that Trudy has written, even though he doesn't really like Trudy. Lewis knows that he will not receive any additional pay for his extra work, and he thinks that proofreading is one of the most bo ring jobs there is. However, after the legal brief is finished, Lewis decides that proofreading isn't such a bad job after all; he feels that at times he actually enjoyed the exacting work. The change in attitude that Lewis has experienced can best be exp l ained using a. the matching hypothesis b. a self-serving bias c. cognitive dissonance theory d. the fundamental attribution error ____ 53. Kristen scrimped and saved for over a year so that she could afford a trip to th e Super Bowl if her favorite team won the NFC title. She was excited when her team made it to the Super Bowl, however the actual game was fairly boring, and in the end Kristen's favorite team lost. Still, when Kristen got back home she told all her friend s about the great time she had at the game. Kristen's attitude about the game she saw can best be explained by a. ingratiation theory b. the matching hypothesis c. a self-serving bias d. effort justification ____ 54. John notices he's been eating carrots a lot lately. From this John infers that he must like carrots. John's positive attitude toward carrots can be explained by a. attribution theory b. the actor-observer bias c. self-perception theory d. the lens model of attitude-behavior relationships ____ 55. In Asch's studies of conformity, subjects a. were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger b. became the recipients of painful electric shocks delivered by an experimental accom plice c. indicated which of three lines matched a "standard line" in length d. were ordered to give consistently wrong answers to simple questions ____ 56. As Milgram studied factors affecting obedience to the research authority, the on ly factor which seemed to markedly reduce obedience was a. agreement of other "teachers" with the directions of the researcher b. moving the research away from the university to rundown quarters c. other "teachers" defying the experimenter and supporting subject objections d. no variable was found that greatly reduced obedience ____ 57. Which of the following statements regarding the influence of culture on conformity and obedience is MOST accurate? a. Conformity and obedience appear to be unique to American culture. b. Replications of Milgram's study in other countries have generally resulted in low levels of obedience. c. Collectivistic cultures tend to encourage more conformity than individualistic cultures. d. Studies of conformity and obedience have yielded virtually identical results across a variety of cultures. ____ 58. Groupthink is more likely when the group a. does not have a designated leader b. must justify their decision to other groups in the same organization c. is under pressure to make a major decision d. experiences any of these things ____ 59. Prejudice is to discrimination as a. feeling is to thinking b. attitude is to action c. thought is to perception d. behavior is to motive ____ 60. The purveyors of miracle tonics and psychic advice tend to rely on which of the following forms of evidence? a. anecdotal evidence b. findings from observational research c. results from laboratory experiments d. findings from surveys and questionnaires
Want to see the other 12 page(s) in THE_Seven_Online_2011_WO.rtf?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!