The Sikh Tradition Originated 5 centuries ago; young Sikh: follower; student; seekers of Truth; discipline Nanak: The first teacher was born a Hindu founder of the line of ?gurus? (teachers) Shared insights on Hindu & Muslim Denial that distinctive forms of worship are important to God Popular image is a man wearing a turban Wear turbans to cover their uncut hair, many have full beards Everyone must work to earn an honest living No renunciation or living at expense of others Share with needy; developed ?Langar?, which is a public soup kitchen Remember God at all times ?Giver? & ?Doer? Brahman does not have intermediary qualities Sant tradition has three elements Bhakti Devotional Hinduism Mostly to God Vishnu Yoga Controlling stance & breathe Gorakhnath was the principle teacher of hatha yoga Sufism Islamic mystical tradition Influential Sant Poets Ravidas: caste status is irrelevant to spiritual fulfillment Kabir: mystical union with the differences of caste and religious communities Namdev God is formless & eternal in Sant tradition Reincarnation: ?samsara? cycle of rebirths 10 gurus: spiritual lineage 1. Nanak 2. Angad: collected Nanak?s hymns to make the script: Gurmukhi 3. Amardas: began shrine tradition 4. Ramdas: dug Amristar ?pool of the nectar of immortality? 5. Arjan: devotional practice of religion & organized charitable contribution; martyr; compiled the Adi Granth 6. Hargobind: developed Sikh symbol; Sikh?s must defend themselves; developed an army 9. Tegh: refused to become a Muslim & was executed 10. Gobind Singh: redefined the core of the Sikh community as a military order ?Khalsa?; was assassinated & ended the guru line Power in Adu Granth ?Khalsa? Sikh Has become orthodox expression of identity Story of how Guru Gobind Singh ?decapitates? 5 of his most loyal men ?Rahit? set of rules of faith & passion cover 4 areas Doctrine regarding the deity, 10 gurus, & sacred scripture Rules of personal conduct from hygiene to social behavior Directions of the observance of community rituals Procedures for disciplining violators of the code 5 distinctive symbols Long uncut hair in turban Comb Bracelet Underwear that is shorts sword Two types Kes-dhari: male who keeps his hair uncut & has not undergone the Khalsa initiation Sahaj-dhari: shaved head ?gradualist? Males gather their hair in a knot & tie it in a turban Women wear tunics and slacks with a scarf Men must have name Singh ?lion? as a surname and women must have Kaur ?princess? as a surname 4 notions of Guruship God as Guru Akal Purakh ?the timeless person? A teacher as a Guru The scripture as Guru Community as guru Follow their own rituals at a time of three seasonal Hindu rituals Marriages are arranged between families, with family loyalty more important than love follow general Indian custom, but is conducted with the Guru Granth Sahib book Funeral Indian custom of cremating the body a day after death Must have the ?5 ks? present Ashes thrown into a river Liberation through faith & divine favor Initiation into Khalsa Must be 14 or older Have 5 people there and a reader Drink nectar 5 times and have it sprinkled on them 5 times Instructed rules of conduct: no adultery, no profiting from arranged marriages, no smoking, use of narcotics, alcohol, no cutting hair, eating meat slaughtered muslim style (animal bleeds to death), breaking ones vows? The Nirankaris Condemned the worship of images & practice of Hindu rituals by Sikhs Followers of Das The Namhdaris Followers of Singh Vegetarian diet, all white attire, extensive chanting Women are equally valued by men God may also be a man or woman, ?mother? or ?father? of the people Adi Granth/ Guru Granth Sahib: principle sacred literature of the Sikhs Organized by ?ragas?
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