Chapter Five: The Prairies, 1870-1896 Review Master R?12 Important People, Groups, and Events 1. Lawrence Clarke was appointed the chief factor at , one of the main HBC posts in the Northwest. He hired Métis carriers on temporary contracts and paid them as little as possible. He was also magistrate of the area, and had the power to imprison Métis who objected to the low pay, or who attempted to strike for better wages. 2. Gabriel Dumont was the Métis president of the . justly arrested several Métis for hunting illegally, but was unfairly imprisoned by the local magistrate. He fought alongside Louis Riel in the Northwest Rebellion. 3. The NWMP was both a police force and a paramilitary organization. It was established because the government feared that the presence of whiskey traders could lead to the loss of territory to the Americans. 4. W. Simpson was an Indian commissioner sent to to establish treaties with the Cree and Saulteaux peoples. He was ordered to negotiate treaties that would terminate First Peoples' title to the land. In this way, settlers could homestead the area. 5. Sir Hugh Allan was a wealthy industrialist. Allan and some American backers created the Canadian Pacific Railway. He offered John A. Macdonald $25,000 for his election campaign in return for a guaranteed railway contract. This "bribe" led to the Pacific Scandal. 6. Alexander Mackenzie was the leader of the Liberal party, and came into power as was experiencing a depression. He thought that railway construction was too expensive, but he still allowed the Canadian Pacific Survey to continue. His "do nothing" attitude led to protest in . 7. Sanford Fleming directed the Canadian Pacific Survey, which investigated all possible routes for a Trans Canada railway. He also created Standard Time by dividing the globe into 24 time zones to make railway scheduling easier. 8. The CPR Syndicate was made up of three private investors?George Stephen of the Bank of Montreal, Donald Smith of the HBC, and James Hill, who had bought the floundering St. Paul and Pacific railways. In exchange for $25 million, a land grant, a monopoly on rail traffic, and an exemption from tax on land they sold, this syndicate agreed to build the transcontinental railway for the government. 9. William Van Home was put in charge of railway construction for the CPR. He was an intelligent and dedicated man who drove himself and his men until the CPR was completed. The task took four years. 10. Chief Crowfoot was the leader of the Blackfoot Nation. Although the CPR was encroaching upon his people's land, he did not rise in arms like the Cree, and negotiated for additional land. Crowfoot was a pragmatist who realized that change would happen; he saw no reason to put his people through more difficulty. Main Ideas and Concepts 1. Look for some of the following points: ? Troops sent into the to "keep the peace" brutalized the Métis. ? To gain title to their land, the Métis had to have scrip. ? They did not understand this new economy, and sold it to land speculators for far less than it was worth. 2. a) The Canadian government wanted to open the prairies to Canadian and European settlement. This could not be done until the question of Aboriginal title had been settled. The government ordered Indian commissioners to negotiate treaties that would terminate First Peoples' title to the land. b) Treaties affected First Peoples in the following ways: ? Lands set aside for their sole use were tiny. ? First Peoples were forced to adapt a farming lifestyle. Because this was not a traditional occupation, the change was difficult. The government also never gave them promised tools, supplies, and animals. ? Because the farms failed, First Peoples became dependent on the government for survival. ? They had to live on reserves. ? Children were forced to attend residential schools. 3. The National Policy was the basis of John A. Macdonald's platform during the 1878 election. It was a formula for nation building, and dealt with the following three issues: ? A system of protective tariffs?The economy had been damaged by American companies that sold cheap goods on the Canadian market. Tariffs increased the costs of goods exported from the , and helped protect Canadian manufacturing, mining, and agriculture. ? Western settlement?Because the prairies were well-suited for agriculture, the government encouraged the settlement of the West by farmers. They would produce crops for export and would also develop a market for the industrial east. ? The CPR?A railway would be required to transport goods to and from the West. 4. Major events could include some of the following: ? 1880?private investors (the CPR Syndicate) found to back the project; ? 1881 ?railway contract approved by Parliament; ? 1882?William Van Home hired as the new general manager of the CPR; ? 1883?CPR spanned the entire Prairie,- ? 1884?CPR crossed the ; and ? 1885?CPR "saved the nation" by transporting troops to put down the North West Rebellion. 5. Look for some of the following points: ? The government had not yet given First Peoples the title on their land. ? The government was not giving First Peoples enough food. Groups faced starvation; the Métis were concerned for the survival of their relatives. ? They had to pay charges on timber, nails, and firewood required for home use. ? They had to pay taxes on necessities of life. ? No measures had been taken to establish links between the Métis and European markets. ? Settlers were coerced at election time. Comprehension 1. Scrip was a piece of paper given to the Métis. Money scrip had a value of $160. Land scrip entitled a person to 160 acres of land. The Métis were used to a traditional economy without money, and did not understand the value of scrip. They sold scrip to land speculators for less than it was worth. 2. Look for the following points: ? The decline of bison forced the Métis to adopt strict hunting rules to conserve the animals,- they had little to eat. ? HBC Chief Factor Lawrence Clarke paid the Métis as little as possible; they had a reduced standard of living. ? Clarke imprisoned Métis who protested or attempted to strike; they lost their freedom. 3. The Laws of were an extension of the Métis List of Rights, and formed the constitution of the community. These laws governed all aspects of life, including the bison hunt, and were intended to conserve bison. Highlights include: ? The community would elect a president and council. ? The council had final authority over disputes. ? The captain of the bison hunt regulated the hunt. ? The Laws of did not usurp the authority of the Canadian government. 4. Gabriel Dumont, the president of the Métis, arrested several people who broke the law by hunting before the official hunt had begun. These people appealed to Chief Factor Clarke, who in turn arrested, tried, and punished . This incident proved to the Métis that they had no power. 5. Look for some of the following points: ? The liquor trade led to widespread alcoholism among the First Peoples, resulting in malnutrition, disease, and death. ? The government feared losing territory to the Americans. ? There was a state of lawlessness, which included attacks upon First Peoples. 6. The government did not give the First Peoples the promised tools, supplies, and animals necessary for farming. The government refused to provide machinery because it did not want the First Peoples to prosper or profit from farming. 7. Since the First Peoples depended on the government for food, the government could use handouts as a form of social control. The government made it clear that troublemakers would receive no food. The choice was to behave or starve. 8. A list might include the following points: ? The Conservatives did not have enough money to pay electors to vote for the construction of the CPR. ? Macdonald asked George-Etienne Cartier to see if Hugh Allan would finance the election in return for a guaranteed railway contract. ? This bribery became public, and led to the resignation of Macdonald's government. 9. The CPR Syndicate suggested that the railroad be moved 300 miles south of the proposed route. The new route would pass through an area that was still not occupied by homesteaders or speculators. The CPR would then have more control over the location of new towns and railway stations. The information collected by the CPR became irrelevant, and the syndicate still had to find a pass through the . 10. Van Home was crucial because he was intelligent, dedicated, and efficient. He did not tolerate laziness or labour organization within his company. He realized that he was on a strict budget, and cut corners as best he could. 11. Living and working conditions were terrible, and included the following problems: ? dust from the dynamite blasts, insects, over-crowding and filth in the bunk houses, leaky roofs, and no plumbing; ? a boring and often unhealthy diet; ? dangerous work; ? no medical facilities; and ? no compensation for injuries on the job (injured employees were simply dismissed). 12. Louis Riel returned to because he was moved by the plight of the Métis, and agreed to fight for justice on their behalf. 13. The Métis Bill of Rights was a document that addressed the grievances of the Métis and outlined a basis for a new province in the Northwest. It was far more detailed than the List of Rights, and it looked more like a declaration of independence. 14. Look for some of the following points: ? Late 1884?the government dismissed the Métis Bill of Rights; ? Spring, 1885?the militia started moving into the Northwest; ? March, 1885?at , a negotiation between the Métis and the NWMP turned sour, and both sides opened fire; ? April,1885?at Fish Creek, 1600 troops clashed with and fewer than 60 Métis, who held off the NWMP for a day, before reinforcements arrived; ? May, 1885?at Batoche, 725 militia attacked 175 Métis, who held off the NWMP for 3 days before being beaten; ? Dumont fled to the ; Riel was captured; First Peoples leaders were arrested. 15. Riel told the jury that the Métis had been mistreated and forced into rebellion. He spoke of the suffering of the First Peoples and Métis. He blamed the government for the rebellion. Had it been responsible and listened to the Métis grievances, the rebellion would not have occurred. 16. Even though the jury recommended clemency, the government refused to consider mercy. Treason was punishable by death, and the Canadian government wanted to make an example of Riel.
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