- Homework Help
Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
process by which organism learns to respond only to a particular stimulus and not others
the conditioned response may occur in response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
frequency of a response will increase because it leads to a subjectively satisfying consequence
reinforcement always ________ the likelihood of the response.
process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur depending on its prior consequences
strengths of behavioral approach
scientific research and support, applications of theory, emphasizes role of situation in behavior
weaknesses of behavioral approach
animal basis for research, perhaps too simplistic, ignores cognitive factors
arose out of behavior theory but includes internal events such as cognition and emotion.
social learning theory
who coined reciprocal determinism?
what are the three factors of reciprocal determinism?
behavior, environment, and personality
individual's passivity & perception of being unable to control consequences is acquired through experiences this was true in.
learned helplessness may be predictive of __________.
Martin Seligman studied dogs in the ________ with use of _______.
shuttle box, shock
what type of situations are more likely to be rated as stressful?
situations out of our control
what is learned helplessness related to?
anxiety & depression, adjustment to retirement or to health in the elderly.
presence of high levels of both masculine & feminine behaviors and traits.
children copied a model's behavior when interacting with an inflatable doll whether aggressively or non aggressively.
Bandura's bobo doll studies
after a delay following extinction, presentation of the conditioned stimulus will again elicit the conditioned response.
a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response cause it is a signal for another stimulus that elicits the response
degree to which an individual prefers one reinforcement or outcome over another
judgement of the likelihood that performing a specific behavior will result in a specific outcome
Rotter's prediction equation
BP = E + RV
behavioral potential, expectancies, reinforcement value
what did Julian Rotter try to predict?
the likelihood of a person's behavior in a specific situation
what does the behavioral approach say that personality is comprised of?
one's behavioral tendencies shaped by learning processes of classical and operant conditioning
the behavioral approach focuses on _________ behaviors and ignores _______ & _________ factors.
observable, cognitive, emotional
observing someone being conditioned to a stimulus may also result in the observer becoming conditioned.
observing someone being reinforced for a behavior increases the likelihood that the observer will engage in that behavior
if the unconditioned stimulus ceases to be associated w the conditioned stimulus the conditioned response wont be elicited
processes of observational learning : 1
attention : observer must first attend to the model
processes of observational learning : 2
retention : observer must retain cognitive representation of the models behavior
processes of observational learning : 3
behavioral reproduction: observer must be able to perform the behavior after retrieving the cognitive representation of model's behavior
processes of observational learning : 4
motivation: observer must be motivated to actually perform the behavior
process of acquiring a behavior through demonstration by a model
what does success of observational learning depend on?
characteristics of model(status, competence, power), of the observer (status, skill, power), and potential consequences.
expectation of one's ability to execute a specific behavior necessary to achieve a specific outcome
high confidence in one's ability to perform a behavior
high self efficacy
effects of self efficacy
activities chosen, effort expended, persistence when encountering obstacles, thought patterns during a task, emotional reactions before & during a task
any event that decreases the likelihood of a response
reward desirable behaviors by giving out tokens or points that can be exchanged for tangible rewards
relaxation training combined with gradual exposure to a hierarchy of fear inducing situations
manipulation of reinforcement and punishment to modify behavioral frequencies
what is the token system an example of?
frequency of a response will increase because it leads to the removal or avoidance of a subjectively unpleasant stimulus
stimulus response connection that did not have to be learned.
stimulus response connection that did have to be learned
food (_____ stimulus) ---> salivation (________ response)
tone(_____ stimulus) ---> no salivation
what are the 3 possibilities for gender role behavior related to well being?
congruence model, androgyny model, masculinity model
tone + food = salivation. tone(_____ stimulus) ---> salivation (________ response)
high masculinity is related to well being due primarily to male dominance within our culture.
being high in one's own gender role is related to well being
who is the androgyny model consistent with?
traditional gender roles paint males more ________ & ________ and females more ________ & _________.
aggressive & socially dominant, submissive & emotional
strengths of social learning theory
real world applications
weaknesses of social learning theory
ignores some aspects of personality
Not a well integrated theory
there is anecdotal evidence of a link between media exposure and ________.
research suggests exposure may lead to __________ increases in aggressive behavior.
short - term
people attribute outcomes to their own efforts or abilities.
internal locus of control
people attribute outcomes to other people or forces out of their control.
external locus of control
locus of control is fairly _______ overtime but also is somewhat _________.
extent to which people believe that what happens to them or others is due to factors within their control.
locus of control
successful psychotherapy may also represent moving a client from an _________ loc to an ________ loc
what is internal loc related to?
higher academic achievement, greater success and advancement in one's career, better psychological well being, better physical health
depressed people tend to be ________ loc for positive outcomes but _______ loc for negative outcomes.
what is external locus of control related to?
perceiving events as out of their control and thus more stressful
constructs less related to self-definition, more easily changed.
constructs central to one's functioning and self-concept. resistant to change.
cognitive structures used to interpret and predict events
who developed the personal construct theory?
Kelly says that personal constructs are typically ______ & that each person constructs their own system through _________.
dichotomous, constructive alternativism
individual ignores one pole of a construct (ex. everyone is nice)
experiences unable to for within construct system are held out until the system can be adjusted.
explains how constructs are used and adjusted
list the 5 steps of the experience cycle
anticipation of an encounter, investment in the outcome, encounter with the event, confirmation or disconfirmation of anticipation, constructive revision leading to different anticipation
what are the two problematic constructs?
permeable constructs & impermeable constructs
what are the 2 problems with prediction?
tightening and loosening
excessively flexible & allowing too much change
making the same prediction regardless of circumstances
excessively rigid & not allowing for change or new additions to the system
making too many varied predictions with no consistency
cognitively simple people use ________ constructs to focus on similarities among people and events
cognitively complex people use _________ constructs to focus on distinctions among people & events.
cognitively complex people use more _________ but more _______ method.
____________ refuse to change constructs regardless of experience.
_________ test their constructs in their real experiences & them adapt them if needed.
weaknesses of Kelly's theory:
ignores other aspects of personality
limited refinement since Kelly's death
strengths of Kelly's theory:
inclusion of cognitive factors
reflects research in cognitive psychology (semantic networks)
emphasis on choosing courses of action most consistent with their predictions of events.may include acting predetermined role
fixed role therapy
fixed role therapy is not typically __________ focused.
assesses personal constructs especially regarding the self & people important to the subject
repertory grid technique
the repertory grid technique uses two elements on the ________ pole and one on the ______ pole.
John b Watson's paper "psychology as the behaviorist views it" signaled the beginning of what movement?
Watson argued that ______ behavior was the appropriate subject matter for psychology.
Watson said that thinking was a variant of verbal behavior or a ____________.
who is known for his classical conditioning experiment?
what type of psychology was B. F. Skinner known for?
Skinner strongly believed that actions occur as reactions to ________.
process of building one conditioned stimulus-response association on another.
thorndikes formulation that behaviors are more likely repeated w satisfying consequences and vice versa
the law of effect
consequence that increases the frequency of a behavior that precedes it
beliefs we hold about how often our actions typically lead to reinforcements & punishments
example of classical conditioning used to alter problem behaviors by pairing negative images with the behavior.
type of operant conditioning used to treat psychological problems using special equipment for somatic processes.
cognitive representations of self-concept are centered around _________.
mental categories influencing how we perceive and respond to events and people.
what may schemas impact?
How info is coded into memory, what we may recall from memory, and errors made in recall.
sets of organized knowledge & classifications of the self.
effects of self schemas include what?
heightened sensitivity to & recall of self relevant stimuli
more efficient processing of information is consistent with _________.
self schemas result in more confident predictions on inferences about _________.
people are often __________ to info inconsistent with self schemas.
what is the name of Ellis theory?
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
irrational, negative beliefs affect how we interpret events and shape our behaviors & emotions.
through REBT,therapist challenges irrational beliefs in an attempt to have people __________ evaluate events
Ellis' ABC Model
e-effective rational beliefs
f-feelings/behaviors after "e"
aggressive responses are not automatic but typically first involve a ___________.
depressed individuals tend to have _______ thoughts.
depressed people tend to interpret neutral events more ___________.
what do cognitive theories of depression center around ____________.
__________ involve the appraisal of the explanations people make for the outcome of events.
typically we are more likely to react aggressively if we presume someone else's behavior to have an _____________.
internal locus & high control
interventions designed to have aggressive children change __________ tended to reduce overall aggression.
Becks cognitive triad of depression suggests presence of negative schemas about what?
1) self 2)world/experience 3)future
depressed people are more likely to recall _________ memories when asked to reminisce about the past.
depressed people are more likely to recall words like ________ & _________ rather than more neutral words
dismal & helpless
depressed people are more likely to focus on __________ aspects of performance when self evaluating.
Not everyone who experiences stress feels ___________.
people are more likely to experience learned helplessness if they have what?
A negative cognitive style
negative cognitive style refers to the tendency to what?
make stable & global attributions to negative events & outcomes.
one of the most common targets of biofeedback treatment is what?
The extent to which people believe actions will lead to a certain outcome
extent to which people believe they can perform the actions that will bring about the particular outcome
successful attempts to achieve the outcome in the past
enactive mastery experiences
procedure in which the therapist arranges the situation so that the client is almost guaranteed a successful experience
therapist creates situation that resembles real world setting in which problem behavior is likely to occur
analogue behavioral observation
clients observing themselves
independence, assertiveness, & control & is roughly similar to masculinity.
refers to attachment, cooperation, & interpersonal connection & is similar to femininity
before people imitate aggression, they must what?
attend to the act, recall it, have the opportunity to engage in the behavior, & believe aggression will lead to rewards.
The cognitive approach explains differences in personality as differences in the way people do what?
Kurt Lewin described the mental representations we form of important elements in our lives &how we organize them within _____
our "life space"
who wrote "the psychology of personal constructs"
what did George Kelly call his approach to personality?
A man-the-scientist perspective
Kelly rejected the idea that psychological disorders are caused by what?
past traumatic experiences
Kelly argues that people suffer from psychological problems because of defects in what?
their construct systems
what metaphor was used for stimuli & responses in the early days of behaviorism?
A "black box" metaphor
list examples of cognitive-affective units
encodings,expectations & beliefs, affects, goals & values, competencies & self-regulatory plans
we relate new information we encounter to something about ourselves.
cognitive representations of the kind of person we might become some day.
what two functions do possible selves serve?
provide incentives for future behavior & help us interpret the meaning of our behavior & events in our lives
more than 1/3 of the juvenile delinquents had developed a __________ possible self.
what 3 cognitive representations of the self does the self-discrepancy theory propose?
The actual self, ideal self, and ought self
self you believe you should be
mental image of the person you would like to be
current mood of psychology
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!