Timeline: Makers of America: - Conquistadores included Hernán Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, who conquered the Aztecs and the Incas respectively. - Within half a century of Columbus? ?discovery? of America, they had claimed, for Spain, territory that stretched form Colorado to Argentina. - They spread from Cuba through Mexico and from Panama, south through Peru. - As the Spanish crown tightened its grip on its colonies, though, the conquistadors lost more and more power. - Most of them never achieved their dreams of glory, though a few received royal titles. - Many of them married Indian women, creating a new class of people called mestizos. - The mestizos formed a bridge between Latin America?s Indian and European races. c. 33,000 ? 8000 BC First humans come to Americas from land bridge connecting Asia and Alaska. c. 5000 BC Corn is developed as a stable crop in highland Mexico. c. 4000 BC First civilized societies develop in the Middle East. c. 1200 BC Corn planting reaches present-day American Southwest. c. 1000 AD Norse voyagers discover and briefly settle in Newfoundland (Vinland). Also, corn cultivation reaches Midwest and southeaster Atlantic seaboard. c. 1100 AD Height of Mississippian settlement at Cahokia c. 1100 ? 1300 Christian crusades arouse European interest in the East. 1295 Marco Polo returns to Europe from Asia. Late 1400s Spain unites. 1488 Díaz rounds the southern tip of Africa. 1492 Columbus land in the Bahamas. 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal. 1498 da Gama reaches India. Cabot explores northeastern coast of North America for England. 1513 Balboa claims all lands touched by the Pacific Ocean for Spain. 1513 & 1521 Ponce de León explores Florida. 1519 ? 1521 Cortés conquers Mexico for Spain, defeating the Aztecs. 1522 Magellan?s crew completes circumnavigation of the world. 1524 Verrazano explores eastern seaboard of Norh America for France. 1532 Pizarro crushes the Incas. 1534 Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence River. 1539 ? 1542 de Soto explores the Southeast and discoveres the Mississippi River. 1540 ? 1542 Coronado explores present-day Southwest 1542 Cabrillo explores California coast for Spain. 1565 Spanish build fortress at St. Augustine. Late 1500s Iroquois Confederacy founded (according to Iroquois legend) c. 1598 ? 1609 Spanish under Oñate conquer Pueblo peoples of Rio Grande Valley. 1609 Spanish found New Mexico. 1680 Popé?s rebellion of New Mexico. 1680s French expedition down Mississippi River under La Salle 1769 Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego, in California.
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