a group of cells that usually have a common embryonic origin and function together to carry out specialized activities
covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts. Also forms glands
protects and supports the body and its organs. Bind organs together, store energy reserves as fat, and help provide immunity to disease-causing organisms
generates the physical force needed to make body structures move and generates body heat
detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outise the body and responds by generating nerve impulses.
develops from all three primary germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm).
Connective and musle tissue
tissue derived from the mesoderm only
tissue developed only from the ectoderm
contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells.
consist of weblike strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse the outer surfaces of adjacent plasma membranes together to seal off passageways between adjacent cells.
contains plaque that attach to microfilaments. Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins join the cell.
contain plaque and have transmembrane gylcoproteins that extend into the intercellular space between adjacent cell membranes and attach cells to one another. Unlike adherens junctions the plaque does not attach to microfilaments
anchor cells to basement membrane not eachother. resemble desmosomes but they do not link adjacent cells. transmembrane glycoproteisn are integrins rather than cadherins. Integrins attach to the protein laminin in the basement membrane.
two types : covering and lining, and glandular. consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers. Never covered by another tissue. Three major functions : selective barriers, secretory surfaces, and protective surfaces. Three surfaces :apical (free), lateral, and basal.
a thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers, the basal lamina and reticular lamina.Contains proteins such as laminin and collagen. Functinos in protection, filtration, secretion, absorption, and excretion.
Simple squamous epithelium
single layer of flat cells. centrally located nucleus. functions in filtration, diffusion, osmosis, and secretion. Examples : lining of heart, blood velles, air sacs of lungs
Simple Cuboidal epithelium
single layer of cube shaped cells. Centrally located nucleus. Functions in secretion and absorption. Examples : covers surface of ovaries, lines kidney tubules, makes up secreting portion of thyroid gland.
Ciliated simple columnar epithelium
single layer of ciliated column like cells with nulci near base. Contains goblet cells in some locations. Functions to move mucus and other substances by ciliary action. Examples : limes some bronchioles, uterine tubes, uterus.
Pseudostratified columnamr epithelium
not a true stratified tissue. Nuclei of cells are at different levels. All cells are attached to basment membrane but not all reach the apical surface. Function in secretion and movement of mucus (ciliated) and absorption and protection (nonciliated). Examples : male urethra and airways of upper respiratory tract
Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
single layer of nonciliated column like cells with nuclei near base of cells. Contains goblet cells and cells with microvilli in some locations. Functions in secretion and absorption. Examples : lines the gastrointestinal tract and gallbladder.
Stratified squamous epithelium
several layers of cells. Cuboidal to columnar in shape in deep layers; squamous cells form the apical surface and several layers deep. Cells from the basal layer replace surface cells as they are lost. Functinos in protection. Examples : keratinized variety froms skin and nonkeratininzed lines mouth, esophagus.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
two or more layers of cells in which the cells in the apical layer are cube-shaped. Function in protection and limited secretion and absorption. Examples : ducts of adult sweat glands and esophageal glands and part of male urethra.
Stratified columnar epithelium
several layers of irregularly shaped cells. Only the apical layer has columnar cells. Function in protection and secretion. Examples : lines part of urethra, esphageal glands, conjunctiva of the eye.
appearance is variable. Shape of cells in apical layer ranges from squamous when stretched to cuboidal when relaxed. Functions to permit distension. Examples : line urinary bladder and portions of ureters and urethra.
Endothelium and mesothelium
unlike other epithelial tissue that arise from embryonic ectoderm or endoderm these are derived from embryonic mesoderm.
simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
forms the epithelial layer of serous membranes such as the pericardium, pleura, or peritoneum.
modified columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus
fingerlike cytoplasmic projections that increase the surface area of the plasma membrane for increased absorption
a tough fibrous protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissue
may consist of a sengle cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts, on to a surface, or into the blood.
secretory products (hormones) diffuse into blood after passing through interstitial fluid. Functions to produce hormones that regulate various body activies. Examples include pituitary gland, pineal gland, and thyroid gland.
Secretory prodcuts released into ducts. Functions to produce substances such as sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, or digestive enzymes. Examples include sweat, oil, and earway glands of skin, digestive glands. Classified based on how their secretions are released.
Type of exocrine gland. Synthesized on ribosomes attach to rough ER: processed, sorted, and packaged by the Golgi complex: released from the cell in secretory vesicles via exocytossi. Most abundant exocrine gland.
Type of exocrine gland. accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell. Then, that portion of the cell pinches off from the rest of the cell to release the secretion.
Type of exocrine gland. accumulate secretory product in the cytosol.
one of the most abundant and widely distributed tissues int he body. Binds together, supports, and strengthens other body tissues; protects and insulates internal organs; compartmentalizes structures; and serves as major transprt system. Primary location of stored energy reserves and main source of immune responses. two basic elemnts : extracellular matrix and cells. Highyl vascular.
the material located between connective tissue's widely spaced cells. Consists of ground substance and fibers.
give rise to the cells of connective tissue
immature cells in loose and dense connective tissue. Present in several conective tissue and usually are the most numerous.
immature cells in cartilage
immature cells in bone
all -blast cells
retain the capacity for cell division and secrete the extracellular matrix that is characteristic of the tissue.
also calle fat cells or adipose cells. Connective tissue cells that store triglycerides (fats). Found deep to the skin and around organs such as heart and kidney.
abundant alongside the blood vessles that supply connective tissue. Produces histamine which dilates small blood vessels. Also can bind to, ingest, and kill bacteria.
White blood cells
not found in significatn numbers in normal connective tissue. Migrate from blood into tissue at site of infections and invasions.
develop from monocytes, a type of white blood cell. Have irregular shape with short branching projections and engulf baceria and cellular debris. can be fixed or wandering.
small cells that develop from a type of white blood cell called B lymphocyte. Secrete antibodies, which are proteins that attack foreign substances. most reside in connective tissue and most abundant in salivary glands, lymph nodes,spleen, and red bone marrow.
The component of a connective tissue between the cells and fibers
one of the most important properties of these are that they trap water, making the ground substance more jelly-like.
a viscous, slippery substance that binds cells together, lubricates joints, and helps maintain shape of the eyeball.
provides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin, and blood vessels.
present in ground substance and are responsible for linking components of the ground substance to one another and to the surfaces of cells. Main protein is fibronectin which binds to both collage fibers and ground substance.
Collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers
three types of fibers embedded in extracellular matrix that function to strengthen and support connective tissues.
fiber in extracellular matrix. very strong and resist pulling forces, but they are not stiff, which allows tissue flexibilty.
most abundant protein in your body
fiber in extracellular matrix. smaller in diameter than collagen fibers, branch and join together to form a network within a tissue. Consist of protein elastin and glycoprotein fibrillin. Can be stretched up to 150% of their relaxed length without breaking. Plentiful in skin, blood vessel walls, and lung tissue.
consist of collagen arranged in fine bundles with a coating of glycoprtein, provide support in the walls of bloods vessels and form a network around the cells in some tissues. Produced by fibroblasts. Much thinner than collagen fibers. Forms stroma or supporting framework of many soft organs.
the tissue from which almost all other connective tissues eventually arise. Composed of irregularly shaped cells, a semifluid gournd substance, and delicate reticular fibers.
Mucous connective tissue
found mainly in umbilical cord of fetus. Form of mesenchyme that contains widely scattered fibroblasts, a more viscous jelly-like substance, and collagen fibers
Loose, Dense, cartilage, bone, and liquid
5 types of mature connective tissue
Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
3 types of loose connective tissue
one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. Contains fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, and adipocytes. Form the subcutaneous layer, the layer of tissue that attaches the skin to underlying tissues and organs. Functions in strength , elasticity and support.
cells called adipocytes are specialized for storage of triglycerides (fat). Found wherever areolar connective tissue is located. Has white (most) and brown varieties. Nucleus and cytoplasm are peripherally located. Functions to reduce heat loss, serve as energy reserves, support and protects.
Reticular connective tissue
consists of fine interlacing fibers and cells. Forms the stroma of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes and helps bind together smooth muscle cells. Also filters blood and lymph.
Dense connective tissue
contains more numerous, thicker, and denser fibers but considerably fewer cells than loose connective tissue.
dense regular, dinse irregular, and elastic
3 types of dense connective tissue
Dense regular connective tissue
bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parallel patterns that provide the tissue with great strength. extracellular matrix looks shiny white. collagen fibers regularly arranged in bundles with fibroblasts between bundlesExamples are tendons and most ligaments.
Dense irregular connective tissue
Contains collagen fibers that are usually irregularly arranged with a few fibroblasts. Found in parts of the body where pulling forces are exerted in various directions. Often occurs in sheets such as skin deep to epidermis or the fibrous pericardium around the heart.
Elastic connective tissue
branching elastic fibers predominate in elastic connective tissue. Gives tissue a yellow color. Consists of elastic fibers with fibroblasts in between. Allows stretching of various organs. Located in lung tissue, walls of arteries etc.
consists of a dense network of collagen fibers or elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitin sulfate, a gel-like component of the ground substance. Can endure considerably more strss than loose and dense connective tissues. Strength due to collagen fibers and resilience due to chondrotin sulfate. No blood supply or nerves.
consists of bluish-white, shiny ground substance with thin, fine collagen fibers and many chondrocytes; most abundant type of cartilage. Provides smooth surfaces for movement at joints, as well as flexibility and support. Found at ends of longbones, ribs, etc.
consists of chondrocytes scattered among thick bundles of collagen fibers within the extracellular matrix. Functions in support and fusion. Found in the pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, menisci of knee. Lacks perichondrium. Strongest of 3 types of cartilage.
Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, and Elastic
3 types of cartilage
consists of chondrocytes located in a threadlike network of elastic fibers within the extracellular matrix. Gives support and maintains shape. Located on lid of top larynx, part of external ear.
cells of mature cartilage
covering of dense irregular connective tissue surrounds the surface of most cartilage. Consist of outer fibrous layer of collagen fiber, blood vessels, and fibroblasts, and an inner cellular layer involved in cartilage growth.
consists of osteons that contain lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, canaliculi, and central canals. Spongy bone consist of thin columns called trabeculae. Functions in support, protection, storage.
a type of liquid connective tissue. Consists of blood plasma and formed-elements: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. red blood cells transport o2 and co2, white blood cells carry phagocytosis, platelets are essential for clotting.
growth from within the tissue.
growth on the outer surface of the tissue. Starts later than interstitial growth and continues through adolesence.
contains four parts : lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi, and central (haversian) canal
concentric rings of extracellular matrix that consist of mineral salts which give bone it's hardnesss and collagen fibers which give bone its strength.
Small spaces between lamellae that contain mature bone cells called osteocytes
project from the lacunae and are networks of minute canals containing the processes of osteocytes.
Central (haversian) canal
contains blood vessels and nerves
lacks osteons but consits of columns of bone called trabeculae which contain lamellae, osteocytes, lacunae, and canaliculi.
the extracellular fluid that flows in lymphactic vessls. Similar to blood plasma but with much less protein.
flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body
consist of mucous membranes, serous membranes, and cutaneous membranes. combination of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer.
lines joints and contains connective tissue but no epithelium.
lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior. Lines the entire digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. The connective tissue layer is areolar and called the lamina propria which supports the epithelium, binds it to the underlying structures, and allows some flexibility of the membrane.
lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior and it covers the organs that lie within the cavity.
part of serous membrane. the layer attaced to and lining the cavity wall.
part of serous membrane. the layer that covers and adheres to the organs within the cavity.
the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and covering the lungs
The serous membrane lining the heart cavity and covering the heart
the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the abdominal organs
or skin. covers the entire surface of the body and consits of a superficial portion called the epidermis and deeper portion called the dermis.
line the cavities of freely movable joints. Lack an epithelium and are therefore not epithelial membranes. Composed of a discontinuous layer of cells called synoviocytes which secrete some of the components of synovial fluid.
consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers that can use ATP to generate force...
Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal
3 types of muscular tissue
Skeletal Muscle tissue
Is voluntary and has striations. Long, cylindrical, striated fibers with many peripherally located nuclei. Function in motion, posture, heat production, and protection. Attached to bones by tendons.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Is straited and involuntary with one centralyl located nucleus. Contains intercalated discs. Located in the heart wall and pumps blood to all parts of the body.
transverse thickenings of the plasma membrane that attach cardiac muscle cell nuclei end to end.
Smooth Muscle tissue
Nonstriated and involuntary. Spindle shaped with one centrally located nucleus. Function in motion. Located in iris of eye, blood vessels, stomach, and airways to the lungs, etc.
consists of neurons and neurolglia. Function in exhibiting sensitivity to various types of stimuli, converts stimuli into nerve impuses, and conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muslce fibers, or glands. Located in the nervous system. Poorest capacty for renewal.
consits of a cell body and processes extending from the cell body (multiple dendrites and single axon). Converts stimuli into electrical signals called action potentials.
tapering highly branched, and usually short cell processes. The major receiving or input portion of a neuron.
a single, thin, cylindrical process that may be very long. Output portion of a neuron.
Do not generate or conduct nerve impulses but have many important supportive functions in neurons.
exhibit electrical excitability, the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals such as action potentials. Examples are neurons and muscle fibers.
suporting connective tissue from which new cells originate by cell divisoin.
cells that consitute the functioning part of the tissue or organ from which new cells originate by cell division
immature, undifferentiated cells that divide to replace lost or damaged cells.
fibroblasts synthesize collagen and other matrix materials that aggregate to form scar tissue. Original function of the tissue or organ is impaired.
actively growing connective tissue
Nutrition, blood circulation, and age
the 3 factors that affect tissue repair
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