body composition measurement via adipose tissue sites. low cost, easy, similar accuracy to expensive equipt. Cons: trainer error increases with lack of experience/familiarity.
50% of BF is stored beneath skin (subcutaneous fat)
less accurate in elderly, obese and very lean clients
height, weight and or circumference to assess body size dimensions. BMI, waist-to-hip-ration WHR. These are just estimations of body comp
lean body mass vs fat
lean: connective tissue, muscles, bones, blood, nervous tissue, skin and organs. anything that is metabolically active fat: adipose tissue. essential BF for M= 2-5% and F=10-13% certain amount of BF is necessary for overall health but too much is detrimental
body fat and health
BF has been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, low-back dysfunction or premature death.
overweight vs overfat
weight: height and weight measurment. 20% over normal =overweight but could be due to lean mass overfat= too much fat which directly affects body composition.
measures water displaced when person is completely submerged after letting out all air (residual volume). density=mass/vol apparatus is expensive and impractical for fitness centers but is the gold standard in body comp measurements.
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