TM Chapter 9
- American Council on Exercise
- Professional Fitness Trainer
- Professional Fitness Trainer 101
- TM Chapter 9
Last Modified: 2014-07-11
lack of flexibility typically causes and overcompensation of mobility into another muscle area. Hip extension with tight hip flexors causes hips to rotate into transverse plane
stretching: inc sacromere alignment and resting alignment
shortening: overlap of contractile fibers, reduces muscles force-generating capacity.
passive stretching and elongation of tightened muscles will help put sacromeres back in place to restore normal length and resting relationship
to fix: must strengthen muscle from resting or shortening position.
ex: shoulders protract, full ROM back rows not recommend, but isometric or shortened rows recommended.
ex: pelvic bone held in place by hip flexors, rectus abdominis, hamstrings and erector spinae
ex 2: shoulder abduction uses delts as prime mover but rotator cuff keeps humeral head from impinging.
ex: hip flexors inhibiting glutes during hip extension.
There fore, the synergist muscles (in this ex: hamstrings) kick in to aid the joint movement.
However, this is not the function of the hamstring and cause the joint and muscle to be injured overtime as they are not functioning properly
mobilzers: more type II fibers for power movements and higher intensity
-realigns elastic muscle fibers from bundled position
-preceeds static stretching
-reduces hypertonicity/tension in muscles
used pre exercise for conditioned and deconditioned clients to restore and maintain flexibility
performed pre exercise after warm up in deconditioned inds
also post exercise for all clients
hold contraction for min 6s then follow with 10-30s passive or assisted static stretch
can be done post exercise for all clients
pre exercise for conditioned clients
during exercise for unconditioned clients
pre exercise for athletes and conditioned clients
during exercise for conditioned clients
this improves endurance of the type I stability muscles. Remember, lengthened muscles shouldnt use full ROM to strengthen them at first.
loads can be gradually added to improve strength and endurance
deep/innermost= vertebral bones and discs, spinal ligaments and small muscles that stabilize each vertabra (interspinali)
middle= fasciae, transverse abdominis, multifidi, and others
outer= powerful muscles that span more vertebrae: rectus abdominis, erector spinae, ext and int obliques, iliopsoas and latissiumus dorsi
weak TVA is associated with low back pain and can cause other injuries if it calls on the synergist muscles to function in ways they were not meant to.
clients should practice "bracing" when performing load exercises.
stage 1: core function. stage 2: static balance stage 3: dynamic balance
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