A respiratory process in many higher plants by which they take up oxygen in the light and give out some CO2, contrary to the general pattern of photosynthesis.
A cell-like organelle present in algae and plants that contain chlorophyll (and usually other pigments) and carries out photosynthesis.
a trans membrane protein complex in a photo system that receives energy from the antenna complex exciting an electron that is passed to an acceptor molecule.
An organized complex of chlorophyll, other pigments and proteins that trap light energy as excited electrons. Plants have 2 linked photo systems in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplast. Photosystem 2 pass an excited electron through an electron transport chain to photosystem 1 to replace an excited electron passed to NADPH. The electron lost from photsystem 2 is replaced by oxidation of H2O.
Any of a group of accessory pigments found in plants in addiction to absorbing light energy; these pigments act as antioxidants, scavenging potentially damaging free radicals.
light energy to make NADH and ATP
In chloroplast, the semi-liquid substance that surrounds the thylakoid system and that contains the enzymes needed to assemble organic molecules from CO2
Granum (pl. grana)
A stacked column of flattened, interconnected disks (thylakoids) that are part of the thylakoid membrane system chloroplasts.
In Chloroplasts, a comlpex, organized internal membrane composed of flattened disks, which contain the photosystems involved in the light-dependent reaction of photosythesis
-The dark reaction of C3 photosynthesis; aka the Calvin-Benson cycle -makes sugars -Depend on products of light reaction
Chemical reaction resulting in the addition of phosphate group to an organic molecule phosphorylation of ADP yields ATP. many proteins are also activated or inactivated by phosphorylation.
A particle of light having a discreteamount of energy. The wave concept of light explains the different colors of the spectrum, where as the particle concept of light explains the energy transfer during photosynthesis.
the relationship of absorbance vs wavelength for a pigments molecule. This indicates which wavelengths are absorbed maximally by a pigment. EX) Chlorophyll a absorbs most strongly in the violet-blue and red regions of the visible light spectrum.
A molecule that absorbs light
The primary type of light absorbing pigment in photosynthesis.
absorbs light in the violet-blue and red ranges of the visible spectrum
an accessory pigment to chlorophyll a, absorbing light in the blue and red-orange ranges. Neither pigments absorbs ligh tin the green range, 500-600nm.
A proton pump found in the thylakoid membrane. This complex uses energy from excited electrons to pump protons from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment.
A process of CO2 fixation in photosynthesis by which the first product is the 4-carbon oxaloacetate molecule.
Plants that use C4 Carbon fixation at night, then use the stored malate to generate CO2 during the day to minimize dessication
Stoma (pl. Stomata)
In plants, a minute opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of the leaves and stems; water passes out of a plant mainly through the stomata
a 3-C molecule taht's the end product of glycolysis; each glucose molecule yields 2 pyruvate molecules.
-Travel as waves -Energy as a particle=photon
Noncyclic Electron flow
Key enzyme=Ribulous Biphosphate Carboxylase -most abundant protein -most "important" protein
Cyclic Electron Flow
18 ATPS>12 NADPH's Produces more ATP and no NADPH
-Make NADPH out in the stroma -2 reduced Fd+NADPH -2oxidized Fd+NADPH (reduced NADPH)
G3P - a chemical compound that occurs as an intermediate in several central metabolic pathways of all organisms. It is a phosphate ester of the 3-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde and has chemical formula C3H7O6P.
Primary cell Wall
Function - structural and protective element; plants, fungi, (bacteria), NOT in animal cells Structure- variable but similar blueprint
Secondary cell wall
Function - extra protection and usually added once cells stop expanding structure - same stuff as primary cell wall except lignin
the layer of intercellular material, rich in pectic compounds, that cements together the primary walls of adjacent plant cells
In plants, cytoplasmic connections between adjacent
A membrane-bounded sac in teh cytoplasm of some cells, used for storage or digestion purposes in different kinds of cells; plant cells often contains a large central vacuole that stores water, proteins and waste materials
The membrane surrounding the central vacuole in plant cells that contain water channels; helps maintain the cell's osmotic balance.
In plants, one of a pair of sausage shaped cells flanking stoma; the guard cells open and close the stomata
In plants,a tubular extension from an epidermal cell located just behind the root tip; root hairs greatly increase the surface area for absorbtion
In plants, a hair out-growth from an epidermal cell; glandular trichomes secrete oils or other substances that deter insects
A highly branched polymer that makes plant cells more rigid; an important component of wood
The most common types of cell; characterized by large vacuoles, this walls, and functional nuclei
In plants, the cells that form a supporting tissue called collenchyma often found in regions of primary growth in stems and in come leaves.
Tough, thick-walled cells that strengthen plant tissues
In plant xylem dead cells that taper at the ends and overlap one another
In Vascular plants, a typically elongated cell, dead at maturity, which conducts water and solutes in the xylem
a specialized parenchyma cell that is associated with each sieve-tube member in the phloem of a plant
The outermost layer of cells; inplants, the exterior primary tissue of leaves, young stem and roots
The outer layer of a structure; inplants the primary ground tissure of a stem or root.
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