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Sites of growth
3 basic plant tissue types (4 if you include meristem) and their relationships (what makes what).
Dermal- Outermost protective covering (Guard Cells, Trichomes, Root hairs)
Vascular- Inside dermal tissue (Xylem, Phloem)
Ground- Inside dermal tissure (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma)
Differences and terms associate with primary and secondary growth
Primary Growth- Apical meristem, Plant body in non woody. Plant length only in woody
Protoderm, Procambium, Ground meristem
Secondary Growth- Lateral meristem, Plant body width. Vascular cambium. Cork cambium
Cell types derived from different tissue types
Xylem and Phloem function, and component cell types.
Xylem- principle water conducting tissue. Transpiration,
Tracheids- Long thin cells with tapered ends. Neighboring pit cells
Vessel elements- wider shorter thin walled. Free water flow
Phloem- Principle food conducting tissue
Sieve tube elements- series of sieve tubes
Sieve plates- endwalls of the sieve tubes, facilitates flow of fluid
Typical root structure, longitudinal and cross section
Young and mature woody eudicot stem cross sections
Stem terminology (node, internode, axillary buds, etc.)
Node- points at which leaves are attached
internode- stem segments between nodes
axillary bud- structure that can form a lateral shoot (branch)
apical bud- can ihibit axillary bud from growing.
Eudicot leaf cross section
Simple vs Pinnately compound vs palmately compound leaves
Alternate vs opposite vs whorled leaf arrangement
Aerial roots- strangle host tree or prop tree up
Pneumatophores- rise above water in aquatic trees
Contractile roots- pull plant deeper
parasitic roots- penetrate host, haustoria for freeding from host
food storage roots- extra parenchyma cells
water storage roots- pumpkins hold excess water
buttress roots- extra support for tree
bulbs- knob like underground stems with fleshy leaves attached
corms- like bulbs but with no fleshly leaves
rhizomes- horizontal underground stems
runner/stolons- horizontal stems above ground
tuber- carbs concentrated on tip of stolons, which swell.
tendrils- twine around support and help plant climb
cladophylls- flattened photosynthetic stems
Bracts- large colorful leaves act as petals, attract pollinators
Spines- cacti. Reduction in leaves prevents water loss and protects plant
Reproductive leaves- maternity plant, leaves fall and make new
Window leaves- cone shaped leaves with transparent tip, allow light to pass through
Shade leaves- large surface area, thin
Carnivorous leaves- capture animals
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