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Brigham Young University
Clinical Laboratory Science
Clinical Laboratory Science Mmbio 423
Toxicology Part 2
Toxicology Part 2
Clinical Laboratory Science Mmbio 423
Brigham Young University
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Clinical Laboratory Chemistry
What are two examples of short acting barbiturates?
secobarb and pentobarb
What is the time frame for a ultrashort acting barbiturate?
What are two examples of ultrashort acting barbiturates?
hexobarb and thiopental
What is the street name for phenobarbital?
What is the street name for amobarbital?
What is the street name for pentobarbital?
What is the street name for secobarbital?
What is the street name for secobarbital combined with amobarbital?
rainbows or christmas trees
What do most of these street names come from?
the color of the pills
What is purple hearts?
phenobarbital or Luminal
What is blue heaven?
amobarbital or Amytal
What is yellow jackets?
pentobarbital or Nembutal
What is red birds?
secobarbital or Seconal
What is rainbows or christmas trees?
secobarbital combined with amobarbital
What are the trade names of the 6 tranquilizers/sedatives?
Miltown, Valium, Librium, Quaalude, Doriden, Noludar
What are the generic names of the 6 tranquilizers/sedatives?
meprobamate, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, methaqualone, glutethimide, methyprylon
What is the generic name for Miltown?
What is the generic name for Valium?
What is the generic name for Librium?
What is the generic name for Quaalude?
What is the generic name for Doriden?
What is the generic name for Noludar?
What is the trade name for meprobamate?
What is the trade name for diazepam?
What is the trade name for chlordiazepoxide?
What is the trade name for methaqualone?
What is the trade name for glutethimide?
What is the trade name for methyprylon?
What is the street name for Miltown?
mother's little helper
What is the street name for Valium?
candy, tranks, foofoo
What is the street name for Librium?
green and black, libs
What is the street name for Quaalude?
disco biscuits, down and dirties, ludes, joe fridays
What is the street name for Doriden?
fours and doors
what is the function of a tranquilizer/sedative?
symptomatic relief of anxiety, irritability, tension, and treatment of insomnia
What happens when tranquilizers/sedatives are abused?
What are the trade names of the 4 non-barbiturates?
Noctec, Placidyl, Dilantin, Rohipnol
What are the generic names of the 4 non-barbiturates?
Chloral hydrate, ethchlorvynol, phenytoin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate
what is the generic name of Noctec?
What is the generic name of Placidyl?
What is the generic name of Dilantin?
What is the generic name of Rohipnol?
What is a common illicit use of Rhipnol?
date rape drug
What is a prescribed use for Dilantin?
What is the trade name of chloral hydrate?
What is the trade name of ethchlorvynol?
What is the trade name of Phenytoin?
What is the trade name of Gamma-dehydroxybutyrate?
What is the street name for Placidyl?
What is the street name for Dilantin?
What is the street name for Rohipnol?
What are analgesics used for?
To relieve pain.
What is a common analgesic drug type?
salicylic acid & Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
What is an example of an salicylic acid for minor pains and fever?
What are the most common side effects of analgesics?
(1) disturbed platelet function and bleeding, (2) GI irritation, (3)Tinnitus, (4) liver damage
What are the symptoms of salicylate poisoning?
respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis.
What are the characteristics of respiratory alkalosis?
(1) Sweating, (2) vomiting, hyperventilation [↓pCO2, ↑pH]
What are the characteristics of respiratory acidosis?
Hypoventilation [↑pCO2, ↓pH]
What is a therapeutic saliculate level?
What does a salicylate level of 30mg/dL indicate?
What does a salicylate level of 60 mg/dL indicate?
What reaction is being used to measure salicylate levels?
Salicylate - Trinder
What is an example of a common nonsteroidal anti--inflammatory drug?
What is an example of a brand that uses acetaminophen?
What affects do NSAIDs have?
(1) Anti-inflammatory, (2) Analgesic, (3) antipyretic
What does a toxic dose result in?
Toxic levels of acetaminophen are measured by _______________________?
What are some forms of Opiates found in nature?
Morphine and Codeine
What's a drug made of morphine?
What is opium derived from?
What is the most common semi-systhetic opiate?
What happens when heroin is metabolized?
It becomes morphine
How are levels of heroin measured?
Measured in the urine as morphine
What are the most common sythetic opiates?
(1) Demerol, (2) Dolophine, (3) Darvon
What's the generic name of Demerol?
What's the generic name of Dolophine?
What's the generic name of Darvon?
What do opiates specifically target?
Receptors in the brain
What are the symptoms of opiates?
(1) CNS depression, (2) Respiratory depression, (3) Bradycardia, (4) Hypotension, (5) Decreased GI motility
When in history was Morphine use first documented?
What are the street names for Morphine?
(1) Dreamer, (2) Greek God of dreams
What is Codeine used as?
(1) Analgesic, (2) Cough suppressant
What will Codeine not do and it therefore less miss-used?
Will not relieve severe pain.
Is heroin a natural / semi-sythetic / synthetic drug?
What are the street names of heroin?
(1) Horse, (2) Junk, (3) Smack
What are the symptoms of cocaine use?
(1) CNS stimulant, (2) Euphoria
What are the street names of cocaine?
(1) Speedball, (2) Crack
What does Speedball contain?
(1) Heroine, (2) Cocaine
What is "Freebasing"?
Taking out the diluent out to increase concentration
Why is "Freebasing" dangerous?
When the diluent is removed the concentration is unknown.
What are the streetnames of Cocaine?
(1) Snow, (2) Flake, (3) Happy dust, (4) Rock, (5) Bernice, (6) Starburst, (7) C, (8) Coke
How can cocaine be taken?
By (1) snorting, (2) smoking, (3) IV
What effect does cocaine have on users that snort?
It perforates their nasal septum.
What does Demerol resemble?
How does Demerol act on the body?
It’s a CNS depressant
What are the symptoms caused by Demerol?
Analgesic or Euphoric effects
To patients with which diagnosis is Demerol given?
Patients with kidney stones
Whats another name for Dolophine?
What is dolophine used for?
As a substitute for narcotic withdrawal
What is the problem with using dolophine?
You can get addicted to it when you are trying to get off morphine.
What is another name for Darvon?
What is Darvon used for?
Its a pink pill for severe headaches
What do the properties of Darvon resemble?
What is characteristic of Tranquilizers?
They have 3 rings, and are tricyclic anti-depressants
Name 4 types of Tranquilizers.
Chlorpromazine, Elavil, Prozac, Zoloft
What's another name for Thorazine?
How do tranquilizers work?
They are a CNS depressant
What is chlorpromazine used for?
what are 2 types of amphetamines?
Benzendrine and Dexedrine
How do amphetamines affect you?
they are a CNS stimulant: increase heart rate, raise blood pressure, regulate mood and alertness
what else are amphetamines used for?
Appetite suppressant. They used to be a common diet pill.
what are the street names for Amphetamines?
Dexies and Bennies, roses, hearts, speed uppers footballs, copilots, white cross, black beauties
How are street names chosen?
By the appearance of the drug
Are amphetamines or methamphetamines more serious?
Methamphetamines: they are stronger
How is each drug administered?
ampthetamines: oral Methamphetamines: IV
What is ritalin used for?
treatment of ADD and sometimes to increase the appetite of the elderly
How does Ritalin work?
It inhibits the inhibitory region of CNS, It calms
what is the name of ecstasy?
what form does ectasy come in?
Pill or tablet
what are the affects of ecstasy?
Increased energy, euphoria, emotional warmth. Distortion of time, perception, and tactile experiences.
what is ecstacy similar to?
Hallucinogens, like mescaline
what are types of hallucinogens?
Marijuana, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine)
what type of drug is Marijauna?
Cannabinoid: because of its chemical properties.
what properties does it have?
It is a sedative
what does Marijuana resemble?
Oregano: it is coarsely ground
how do you take marijuana?
It is usually smoked but can be eaten
what are the street names for marijuana?
Acapulco, gold, ashes, mary-jane, weed, pot, texas tea, Maui wowie
what is it called when its more concentrated?
what is the full name for LSD?
Lysergic acid diethylamide
How does LSD affect the consumer?
Changes in perception, thought, mood, and activity. visual and auditory hallucinations.
what are the street names for LSD?
acid, heavenly blue, pearly gates, royal blue, serenity, tranquility, wedding bells
when was LSD used often?
what is a major problem with using LSD?
It causes flashbacks even when you are not on the drug and can make you do crazy things, like jump off buildings.
what is the full name for PCP?
what is PCP?
a tranquilizer, used for general anesthetics
Where is this commonly seen?
In veterinarian offices. Vets use it to put out animals
What kind of case history would have PCP?
if the patient works as a vet and has been acting funny.
What affects does PCP have?
produces disorientation and hallucinations
what are the street names for PCP?
angel dust, crystal, peace, rocket fuel
How do you ingest PCP?
Smoking or snorting
What is Gunk?
sniffing chemical vapors
What things are classified as gunk?
Anything you sniff: glue, paint, pam, aerosol sprays, nail polish remover, lighter fluid, markers.
what is a big problem with sniffing?
You can"t control how much you get and it kills a lot of brain cells. It's lethal.
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