Traits II ? Five Factor Model Traits can be used to help us understand the reasons for our behavior. Road Map Methods of Studying Traits Five Factor Model Define the traits Basics Origins Methods of Studying Traits Many-trait - ??who does that?? California Q-sort: Single-trait ? ?What do people like that do?? Authoritarianism - Conscientiousness ? Essential-trait ? Which traits are the most important? BFI example Five Factor Model Origins: Henry Murray 13 ?needs? Raymond Cattell - first to use factor analyses identified 16 traits Lexical Hypothesis ? Sir Francis Galton - first scientist to recognize Foundations of language Data Reduction Technique: Factor Analysis Different researchers, different types of data ? Five Factor Model _ Big Five Robert Fiske: Extraversion Quantity and intensity of interpersonal interaction, need for stimulation, experience of positive emotions Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Extroverts vs. Introverts Asendorpf & Wilpers, 1998 Neuroticism Level of personal adjustment vs. emotional instability. Calm vs. anxious Insecure vs. secure Self-pitying vs. self satisfied Highs vs. Lows: (Gunthert, Cohen & Armeli, 1999). Conscientiousness Organization, persistence, and motivation ? Organized vs. disorganized Careful vs. careless Disciplined vs. impulsive Highs vs. Lows: (Arthur & Graziono, 1996) Agreeableness Degree of compassion vs. antagonism Soft-hearted vs. Ruthless Trusting vs. suspicious Helpful vs. uncooperative High vs. low: (Donnellan, et al., 2004) Openness to Experience Seeking out, Appreciation of, & Tolerance for new experiences Imaginative vs. practical Preference for variety vs. Preference for routine Independent vs. conforming Highs vs. Lows: (Feist, 1998). Five Factor Model Basics: Universal Schema Relate to question we all want to ask when we encounter someone new?(Goldberg, 1981) Are these universal? ? Cross Cultural Research = (Yang & Bond, 1990) ? Orthogonal ? They can enclose a wide range of traits in one schema Hierarchical ? Influence ?life outcomes (L-data): Extroversion: Conscientious: Agreeableness: Neuroticism: Open to Experience: Five Factor Model ? Limitations Too Broad - Too general to make actual predictions of how one will act in given situation. Only Descriptive Atheoretical ? Methodology Factor Analysis Limited by language ? What kinds of data to use:
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