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Transform Faults & San Andreas Fault
Transform Faults & San Andreas Fault
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the boundary btwn two plates is a fracture in the crust
pressure, outside influence
builds up due to pressure (stress) in the rocks on either side of the fault so they slowly bend.
bend in the fault from a strain
movemtn occurs sideways along horizontal trace of the fault---crust is neitehr created nor destroyed.
movement along fault
the horizontal trace
San Andreas Fault
transform fault in California
Wueen Charlotte Fault
transform fault off coast of British Columbia
transform fault of Guatamala
transform fault (divergent bends) beneath Dead Sea
transform fault of Turkey
South island, new zealand transform fault
crust may be stretched until it breaks and collapses to creat a long narrow depression that may collect sediment of become filled iwth water
pull apart basin
long narrow depression
the fault curves in the otehr direction, plate motion jams the blocks of crust together creating folded mountains across the trace of the fault. (Transverse Ranges of Cali is example)
folded mountains created by convergent bends
40 Mil year old that slices through guatamala and forms boundary btwn north american and caribbean plates
in Middle East and recorded at least 3000 years of recorded earthquake activity
Sodom & Gomorrah
destruction may be earthquake related
lies in the Dead Sea Rift as a pull apart basin produced in a region of tension btwn two overlapping strike slip faults that seperate Arabian and African plates
left lateral (sinistral)
the far side of each fault moves to the left in a strike slip fault
fortress where 100 Jews withstod a twoyear Roman seige before choosing mass suicide to avoid capture
Dead Sea transform
forms an extension of Africas rift system
was flooded due to rise in world sea level, but dried up when the sea receded to leave the Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea, andGulf of Aqaba
formed from evaporation near shore up to a foot or two in height around peices of wood froms the water
minded for ferilizer at a rate of one mil tons a year
amber gas, that is extraced from bromide salts
North Anatolian Fault
forms norhtern boundary of Anatolian plate
right lateral (dextral)
far side of fault moves to right
slices through center of Nova Sccotia and represents a right lateral transform fault that was active during the destruction of Iapetus Ocean and assembly of Pangaea in Paleozoic
Great Glen Fault
home to Loch Ness Monster and lies upon ancient transform fault torn asunder with opening of the Atlantic Ocean
now where the Great Fault lies
northwest of LA where the San Andreas fault is clearly visible
Fort Tejon earthquake
half of the 70 ft offsets these tream during this in 1857
San Fransico earthquake
San Fernando earthquake
in 1971, 6.5 magnitude
where vibrations of an earthquake begin, a locked fault suddenly lets go
speed at 12,000 to 19,000 mph to arrive at the surface or at seismometers
seismic wave detection devices
like sounds, alternately pusing and pulling surface structures in the direction of wave travel
slower, 7000 to 10,000 mph and arrive second
secondary waves, oscillations in a rope and heave the grouond up and down or sideways but cannot move through water.
produce lowfrequency vibrations that roll the ground like ocean waves or whip sideways
point on Earths surface nearest the focus
Pinnacles National Monument
volcanic rocks southwest of Holister
movement of 2 cm/year
distribution of major earthquake epicenters with epicenter diameters increasing with earthquake magnitude
each unit increase stands for an increase in 10 times the seismic wave measured by the seismograph
most susceptible to potential earthquake damage in California because it is locked btwn the locked San Andreas and Hayward Fault
moves at 1 cm/yr but is not moving as fast as the strain is building
San Andreas Lake
man made reserviors where further hazards lie
World Series earthquake
1989. movement of the 40 km long segment generated a mag 7.1 earthquake.
smaller tremors that follow the main movement event
the locked portion of a fault where the risk of damaging earthwake activity is greatest
occurs when violent shaking of water confined in the ground breifly turns soil to quicksand so that buildings sink or tip and are locked askew when when the shaking stops and ground sets again.
rests on a stable 10ft thick block of concrete holding 480 km of steel reinforcing rods
small tremors known as foreshocks taht precede the main movement event
wires stretched across the fault to register any horizontal movement
can detect even the slightest ground tremors and can reveal changes in a seismic wave velocity
signal the amount of the radioactive gas radon released into groundwater by rocks under stress
used to predict olcanic eruptions, detect changes in land slope by the rising and flaling of water levels in two containers
laser ranging instruments
measure the roundtrip travel time of a light pulse and thus the precise distance between two points indicating horiziontal movement across the fualt
uses quasar signals from outside our galaxy as reference points to monitor ground movement
measures plate movement by bouncing laser beams between Earth stations and an orbiting satellite
measure expansion and contraction of crustal rock
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