Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, Processes of Change, Self Efficacy, Temptations.
What is TTM?
Says that there is no single approach to changing behavior, and Behavior change happens in progressions.
What is another name for TTM?
Stages of Change Model
What are some facts about the stages of change construct?
-stages are between trait and states. -Stages can last a while & a person can never leave a change. - stages are both stable & dynamic - person can move quickly, slowly either forward or backwards through stages
what is the operational definition for exercise change for precontemplation?
person who does not intend to make change or even thinking about changing behavior anytime within the next 6months.
True or false, contemplaters are the most difficult to get people to change behavior?
What are the 2 types of pre-contemplators?
non believers- believe there is NO value in PA. believers- believe there is value to PA bu can't seem to start exercising.
what is the stage of contemplation?
person recognizes need to change behavior, intends to begin exw within the next 6 months. Aware of the Pros & Cons. Open to new information.
Someone who has bought running shoes is in what stage of change of TTM?
What is the stage of preparation?
Planning on behavior change within the next 30 days. Actively taking steps to make it happen, buy shoes, join gym, etc. Random bouts of exw.
What is the stage of action?
person recently changed behavior but has been exercising for less than 6 months.
Which stage requires the most amount of time and energy in TTM stages of change?
What is the maintenance stage?
engaged in exercise or new behavior for 6 months or more. Boredom/relapse is more of an issue than time/energy.
What is the MAJOR goal in the maintenance stage?
What is the termination stage?
person has been engaged in behavior change for more than 5 years.
What is the stage of decisional balance?
weighing the pros and cons varies depending on which stage of change the individual is in.
Which stages of change do cons outweigh the pros?
precontemplation & contemplation.
which stages of change do pros outweigh the cons?
action, maintenance & termination.
What are processes of change?
behavior, cognition, and emotions people engage in during course of changing behavior.
What are some steps in processes of change?
gathering info, making substitutes, being moved emotionally, being a role model, getting social support, developing a healthy self image, taking advantage of social mores, being rewarded, using cues, making a commitment.
What is temptation in TTM?
intensity of urges to engage in behavior in midst of difficult situation.
What is Self efficacy in TTM?
SE increases with each stage and is a good predictor for successful change.
what is a good predictor of successful change?
What are the 3 advantages in TTM?
the stages provide researchers with oppurtunity to match interventions to different needs of individuals in each stage.
provides researchers ability to sub divide the at risk population.
allows for targeted recruitment.
What are the limitations of TTM?
research does not support 6 stages as robust construct. (there are people between the stages)
only equivocal support for relationship between processes & stages of change. (some research shown no relationship between processes & stages)
most descriptive, not explanatory. (can't explain how people got to their stages)
fails to include influence of moderator variables : nothing that addresses gender, age, psych states, past experiences.
integration of a number of theories create conflicts. (can't skip a stage like other models)
What is the research on perceived severity & stages on change in TTM?
Perceived severity is a poor indicator of stages of change. Predictor of change among contemplators, & people in precontemp show low perceived severity.
What is the research of theory of planned behavior ( TPB) & stage of change?
some research showed TPB was more predictive of PA than stages of change model.
some research showed the TPB explains why people change their exw behavior whereas the stages of change tell us HOW people change exw behavior.
which type of research generally supports the model?
Cross sectional - compare groups of people - particularly supports SE & decisional balance. - problem that we still don't know how to move people through stages.
What do intervention studies tell us about TTM?
someone in maintenance where social support is a big factor rather then think about the pros and cons increased PA.
where does TTM work?
- works in community, work places & health care settings.
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