Trattner Chapter 6 Child Welfare movement Child welfare includes all those activities and services by individuals and public and private agencies for the benefit of dependent, neglected, or delinquent children Movement included taking dependent, neglected, and delinquent children from almshouses and other institutions and placing them in private homes Also created: juvenile courts and probation systems provision of mothers? and widows? pensions passage of compulsory school attendance laws crusades against child labor thousands of children orphaned or half-orphaned resulting from Civil War industrial growth resulted in mothers and children working in factories. While mothers worked, less parental supervision which resulted in an increase in juvenile delinquency most citizens viewed a child as the key to social control ?threat or hope of the future? FDR: ?The destiny of American youth is the destiny of America? During colonial times until well into 29th century, childhood was not even looked at as a phase in development looked at as ?miniature adults? Enlightenment notions of free will and human progress began to challenge the earlier doctrines John Locke?s tabula rasa theory Idea of ?Christian Nurture? emerged children were ?plastic creatures who could attain salvation through a healthful (or nurturing) environment as opposed to strict discipline and hard work? mid 19th century, view ultimately changed from children?s sinfulness to their probability of goodness American Medical Association organized a Pediatric Section in 1880 1889: American Pediatric Society Sigmund Freud neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis who stressed the importance of sound nurturance in infancy and childhood for the formation of a good character and a healthy personality G. Stanley Hall ?father of the child study movement? began to look closely at what follows the onset of puberty important book Adolescence not only contained a vast amount of information on human development but was a milestone in child study, contributing to tendency to raise status of children in society What affected the children and the ways they were treated? gender race class ethnicity place of residence many almshouses were vile catchalls for victims of every sort of misery, misfortune, and misconduct who were herded together and badly mistreated many concerned citizens wanted a change children were the first beneficiaries of this change Creation of Children?s institutions founders of child care institutions share the notion that only careful and diligent training within an institution to cope with the open, freewheeling and often disordered life of the community would prevent their charges from falling victim to ignorance, vice, and crime 1727: unit was set up at the Ursuline Convent in New Orleans for children whose parents had been slain in an Indian raid 1st permanent orphanage was Bethseda founded in Savannah, Georgia in 1740 still open today, as a child care center for emotionally disturbed children 1st public institution solely for children established in 1790 in Charleston, South Carolina 1861: Oho passed 1st statute calling for the mandatory removal of all children from county almshouses 27 separate children?s institutions were already established by 1890, that number was 600! however, some of these institutions weren?t perfect either some had from 50-2000 children under one roof individuality was suppressed the ?total? institutions were named orphan ?asylums? subsidy system: the practice of the states providing funds for private institutions, either in a lump sum or on an annual, basis (periodically on a per capita basis) these private institutions thus operated individually but on public funds, and abuse still occurred many of the managers ran the private institutions as business or profit-making ventures system of placing children in private homes emerged family care began to replace institutional treatment Brace and the Children?s Aid Society founded in 1853 in New York founded by Rev. Charles Loring Brace the program included: evening schools sheltered workshops industrial education classes (for boys) training schools for sewing machine operators and household servants (for girls) lodging houses for newsboys and bootblacks penny savings banks outings and vacations Brace looked at removal from society as the ultimate answer The ?West? was the ?medicine prescribed for all those wished to better their lot Brace embarked on this idea for aid to the children Brace?s other 2 ideas: agrarian myth individualistic social philosophy both as the notions that the farmer was the ideal individual and citizen; that agriculture was uniquely productive and important to society; that rural life was inherently more moral and virtuous than urban living; that the fewer restraining forces on the individual the better Brace viewed the best ?asylum? would be in the home of a farmer Creation of idea of foster care 854: C.A.S. began its ?emigrant parties? when 46 boys and girls were taken by train from NYC to a small town in Michigan where they were disposed of by different methods Brace bypassed the needy children?s own family however With lack of follow-up with these children and absence of any care and supervision many of the abuses reappeared Brace popularized the idea of foster home care Towards end of 19th century, placement within the children?s own home was preserved otherwise then placed in private homes these homes had licensed authorities and were studied by a social worker, physician and later psychologist and sometimes a psychiatrist as well placement would still be temporary until deemed okay for the child and home emphasis on individual treatment Idea of Adoption unknown to the Common Law of England recognition of need for a pre-adoptive investigation marked beginning of child legislation that emphasized the human elements in adoption was undesirable compared to the ?boarding-out? system where a payment of a fee (weekly, monthly, or yearly) for the rearing of a child was given Juvenile Psychopathic Institute created in 1909 Dr. William Healy ?The Individual Delinquent? rejected the theory that delinquency and crime were caused primarily by heredity and instead emphasized environmental or social factors in a multicausal approach homecare looked at as better for preventing delinquency that if placed in an institution Beginning of 19th century: placing needy children IN institutions End of 19th Century: getting children OUT of institutions Juvenile Delinquency originally, children convicted of crimes were either sent to almshouses or committed with adults and sent to prisons Juvenile reformation in America during 19th century: ?youthful offenders were removed from harsh surroundings and from association with adult criminals and placed in special institutions or private homes where they were treated from an educational and constructive rather than a punitive point of view In beginning, these special institutions turned out to be just like prison Many poor used them for advancement for their children and to remove their children from faulty home situations and avoiding the troubled lives they seemed to be headed towards Forms of punishment were often used since in the beginning of the 19th century, it was looked to the individual for the root of their delinquency Awareness of need for change led to: development of real houses of correction emphasizing education and training use of indeterminate sentences introduction of parole and probation creation of detention homes and diagnostic centers recently, more methods of treatment as group therapy, counseling? Creation of the New York State Reformatory in Elmira in 1876 first correctional home for young MEN to adopt the indeterminate sentence inmates helped to determine length of stay (up to a dictated maximum) through their performance and progress as determined by a professional authority GIRLS homes: Western House of Refuge in Albion (1893) State Industrial School for Girls in Lancaster Massachusetts(1856) Detroit House of Correction (opened a separate women?s wing when created in 1861) when released: then sent to place of employment that was arranged for them remained on parole Juvenile Courts Massachusetts (1870s) enacted legislation for children?s cases to be separate hearings world?s 1st full-fledged juvenile court created in Cook County (Chicago) in 1899 after an 8 year battle criminal procedure was abolished and replaced by nonadversary or chancery court proceedings instead of a court-room trial, they were held in the judge?s private chambers (no lawyers, oaths, or robes) role of judge was to be like a parental guide aim of the court was re-education rather than retribution Parens patriae: a degree parental authority colonial poor dealt with abandoned, orphaned, or illegitimate children not those in intact families documented cases of black children and other minorities receiving harsher treatment than white children Tinker vs. Des Moines Independent Community School District Court declared children ?person? under the Constitution All too often children were apprehended by police, detained, questioned, given a closed hearing by a juvenile court judge, and then either placed on probation or committed to an institution without regard for their rights or those of their parents May 1967: U.S. Supreme Court in the Gault decision said that ?neither the 14th amendment nor the Bill of Rights was for adults alone? also ruled that charges against a juvenile must be given the child has to be represented by legal counsel(must be appointment by court of family can?t afford one) child has right to confront and cross-examine complainants child has protection against self-incrimination Child home care movement whenever possible, the children would be able to remain in the home where they would receive treatment effective system of probation probation was looked at as a way to help the delinquent to adjust to community life because community was looked at as source of crime in Chicago, probation officers were appointed no money for the position most were untrained citizens, court clerks, or policemen promise of Gault decision not fulfilled juvenile delinquency increased greatly in years especially following WWII Mobilization for Youth 1958, funded initially by National Institute of Mental Health consisted of: remedial educational work manpower training programs employment bureaus anti-discrimination activities and neighborhood social and service centers designed to provide greater recreational and economic opportunities for young people in slum neighborhoods results were mixed Conditions of Children conditions of nations? 64M children was growing worse tremendous rise in the ?battered child syndrome? (refer back to DiNitto notes) increases in infant mortality rate large number of children were contracting deadly diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and measles in early 1980s, federal spending on AFDC, food stamps, and Medicaid was cut significantly and there was an increase in deaths among infants 9.8 infant death rate for every 1,000 live births (in 1989) America becoming one of the worst places in the industrialized world to be born African-American and Hispanic children, the death rate was near twice as high Chances to live the first year of life was less than babies in many 3rd world countries Reasons for the 2 out of 5 children that did survive the first year of life to live in poverty (mid 1990s) dramatic increase in teenage pregnancy and single-parent families declining wages growing unemployment lower welfare payments In 1980s, fastest growing group in America with no place to live were those under age 18 Mid 1990s, U.S. had highest rates of: childhood homicide suicide firearms-related deaths among the world?s 26 richest nations 75% of all such deaths within those countries occurred in America Miscellaneous May 1996: members of more than 3,000 organizations joined the Children?s Defense Fund in sponsoring a Stand for Children rally at Lincoln Memorial October 1997: Clinton and Hillary held the White House Conference on Child Care
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