If you pick a baby up every time he/she cries, he/she will cry more.
Parents who reliably pick up their babies when they cry have babies who cry less in the first three months of life. However, their babies also continue to cry at night longer than babies who are allowed to cry a bit when they are upset.
Research tells us whether a theory is true or false.
Research provides evidence that supports or fails to support ideas from a particular theory, but by itself it does not tell us whether the theory is true or false.
The bulk of your personality is fixed and established by the time you enter adolescence.
Many theorists have described developmental changes that shape our personality throughout the lifespan.
Children can learn to fear objects such as white rats and pieces of toast.
Through the process of classical conditioning, objects that initially do not produce fear can be paired with things that do, until we learn to fear the object that started out neutral.
The best way to establish and maintain a behavior is to reward people every time they do the behavior that you are interested in.
This helps establish a behavior quickly, but when the reward stops, so does the behavior. Behavior is maintained longer if you reward on a random basis.
The best way to get rid of an undesirable behavior in a child is to punish a child for doing it.
Punishment will temporarily stop the behavior, but when the punishment stops, the behavior returns. Ignoring the behavior (extinction) is more reliable, because we seldom continue to do things that don't "pay off" in some way.
When young children are selfish and self-centered, it is because their parents are overindulging them.
According to Piaget, children may appear to be this way because they are incapable of seeing things from another person's point of view (egocentrism).
Darwin's concept of the "survival of the fittest" means that the strongest animal is most likely to survive.
In this sense, "fittest" means best adapted to the environment. The one who is best adapted may have some characteristic other than strength that determines whether he/she will live to pass on his/her genes to the next generation.
If a child is experiencing a lot of stress at home, the child will show behavior problems in the classroom.
It is likely that there will be some carryover from the home to the classroom. Ecological theory shows that both stress at home and the quality of the classroom environment play a role in determining whether a child will have behavior problems.
Babies lose the stepping reflex they have at birth because their legs become too heavy for them to lift.
It was previously thought that the loss of the stepping reflex is a product of brain maturation. However, Thelen showed that babies regain the reflex when their legs are easier to raise while held upright in water.
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