"Goodbye" used when others are staying but you are leaving
"Goodbye" used when the other people are leaving but you are staying (also used when both of you leave for different locations at once)
"Excuse me" used when: You try to get someone's attention You call over a waiter in a restaurant
"Just a second"
"Just a second"
Yes, that's right
(It's) an office
(It's) a bag
이에요 / 예요
"To be"; "am"; "is"; "are" Use the first when the previous word ends with a consonant Use the second when the previous word ends with a vowel
(It's) a school
It's a book
This is a book
This is a camera
This is coffee
This is a dictionary
What is this?
What is it?
This is a cellphone
이거 커피예요? 아니요. 이거 물이에요.
Is this coffee? No. This is water.
이거 커피예요? 네. 맞아요. 이거 커피예요.
Is this coffee? Yes, that's right. This is coffee.
This (near you) (used as a modifier)
The/that (near the other person) (used as a modifier)
That (over there; away from both of you) (used as a modifier; in other contexts could mean "me/I")
거 or 것
Thing, item, stuff
이거 or 이것
This thing/item/one (near you)
그거 or 그것
The thing/item; that one (near someone else)
저거 or 저것
That thing over there
This person; this man here; this lady here; he; she (close to you)
The person; that person; he; she (near someone else)
That person over there; he; she (far away from both of you)
To be not (+ noun)
It's not me
It's not milk
It's not water
이거 우유 아니에요
This is not milk
Not a student
저 학생 아니에요
I am not a student
저거 술 아니에요
That (over there) is not liquor
Not a cat
그거 고양이 아니에요
That (near someone else) is not a cat
은 or 는
Topic marking particle Nuance: emphasis; "about" something, "as for" something, "unlike other things" or "different from other things" Really powerful in changing the meaning of a sentence; often used for contrast
이 or 가
Subject marking particles Nuance: emphasis; "none other than", "nothing but" Less contrasting power; often used to answer a question; emphasizes who did something, which one is good, etc.
As for me, I am a student. / I am a student
내일은 저는 일해요.
As for tomorrow, I work.
This is an apple.
(The other things are not apples, but) THIS is an apple.
오늘 날씨 좋네요.
The weather is good today.
오늘은 날씨 좋네요.
(The weather hasn't been so good lately, but TODAY, it's good.)
오늘 날씨는 좋네요.
(Today, not necessarily everything else too, but at least the WEATHER is good.)
WHAT is good?
ABC 좋아요. ABC 좋아요? XYZ가 좋아요!
ABC is good. ABC is good? (XYZ is the one that's good.)
Have / exists
Don't have / doesn't exist
There is water. / Water exists. / I have water. / They have water.
Is there water? / Do you have water? / Do they have water?
I have friends. / I have a friend. / There are friends.
Do you have friends? / Do they have friends?
There is time. / I have time. / They have time.
Is there time? / Do you have time? / Do they have time?
There is no time. / I don't have time. / We don't have time.
I don't have friends.
Literally "Fun exists", but means "to be interesting"
TTMIK is fun! / TTMIK is interesting!
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