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age of exploration
time period in which Europeans explored in search for gold, glory and god.
reason for exploration: gold
European countries raced to expand European trade to increase wealth
reason of exploration: glory
European countries were competing for reconigtion and power among European countries.
reason of exploration: God
desire for religious freedom and missionary work in the new world.
age of colonization
mass amounts of people from a specific country migrating to a new place to settle colonies with their own economies and societies.
what were the 4 basic reasons for colonization?
economic, religious, social, political.
colonization push and pull: economic
push: create colonies to support mercantilism
pull: desire to own land, natural resources, profit
colonization push and pull: religious
push: king made everyone practice some religion.
pull: escape religious persecution, freedom of religion
colonization push and pull: social
push: rid society of excessive population
pull: start a new life, climb the social ladder
colonization push and pull: political
push: extended kings power
pull: self government
list the region's of the 13 colonies
south, middle, new England
new England colonies geography and economy
g: Rocky thin soil, winters- long and cold, lots of forests and coastlines
e: lumbering, fishing, shipbuilding, substance farming(Only enough for your family)
middle colonies geography and economy
g: flat open land, fertile soil, coastlines, lots of iron ore, mild climate, allowed for long growing season
e: made their living by farming wheat, barley, rye, breadbasket colonies, craftsmen and manufacturing, harbors for fishing
southern colonies geopgrophy and economy
g: fertile soil, swampy coastlines, climate- mild with short winters and long springs and summer
who discovers Jamestown?
what year was Jamestown discovered?
importance to Jamestown?
first permanent English colony
what type of government did Jamestown use?
Virginia house of burgases
who discovers plymouth?
what year was Plymouth discovered?
what was the importance of Plymouth?
first colony founded for religious freedom
what type of government did Plymouth use?
What was the overall government that all colonies use?
what year did Columbus discover America?
what were the 2 important eras in the gold unit?
exploration era and colonization era
which colonized region had the most slavery?
why did southern colonies feel that slavery was important?
plantation systems used free slave labor to make more money off growing cash crops
explain triangular trade
process by which slaves, goods and natural resources were traded between w. Africa and w. Indies
what was the middle passage?
a slave trade route going from Africa to america to give slaves
what was the French and Indian war?
A war between France and great Britain. they both wanted control over the profitable Ohio river valley fur trade. Britain won the war and officially ended it with the treaty of Paris 1763
causes of the civil war
sugar act, stamp act, tea act, Boston tea party, intolerable act, 1st continental congress
what is the sugar act?
tax on sugar and molasses
what is the stamp act?
tax on paper goods.
what is the tea act?
tax on tea
what is the Boston tea party?
dumped tea into Boston's harbor
what is the Intolerable act?
punishment for the tea party
what did the 1st continental congress create?
it created the colonial militia
what is mercantilism?
the theory that a nation's wealth is dependent on the amount of gold in it's treasury.
what is the navigation act?
Laws that forbid colonists from trading with any other nation except the mother country- great Britain
what is a patriot?
wanted revolution with great Britain and to separate. on the side U.S
what is a loyalist?
wanted to stay loyal to the king. on Britains side
what did Join or die by Ben Franklin mean?
To join and fight against Britain.
1775: fought because British were trying to take arms colonists were strong. 1st battle of the American revolution
Lexington and concord
1777: turning point, because of this victory, French joined colonists
winter 1778-1779: Washington and troops endure a grueling, freezing winter here
1781: cornwallis(British commander) surrenders to Washington. last battle
1783: ended the revolutionary war, extended borders from Atlantic to Mississippi river
treaty of Paris: 1783
where was the declaration of independence written?
Philadelphia during the 2nd continental Congress july 4rth 1776
who wrote the declaration of independence
what did the declaration of Independence say?
explained government should protect rights
declared 13 colonies as independent
what are unalienable rights?
rights, or freedoms, given to us at birth that cannot be taken away
weaknesses of articles of confederation
have a federal court system
could barely handle shays rebellion
strengths of the articles of confederation
what did the great compromise guarantee
Senate- equal representation(2 each)
house of representation(proportional)
which size states for more of what they wanted from the great compromise?
define 3/5 compromise
each enslaved person would count as 3/5 of a free person
why did states have different ideas of how to count slaves as part of the population
because representation in the house of representation was based on population
people who supported the constitution. Wanted a strong national government.
define anti- federalists
people who were against the constition and wanted the bill of rights. wanted stronger state governments.
define limited government
no one is above the law and tells government what can and cannot do
define popular sovereignty
people have authority. people do voting. We the poeple.
define representative government
people elect their political representative
define individual rights
bill of rights. basic liberties. unalienable rights. 9th amendment. rights for the people.
define separation of powers
government divided by 3 branches. each branch has their own responsibilities.
define checks and balances
each branch hold some power over each other so no branch becomes to powerful
sharing powers between state and federal government
freedom of speech, religion, assembly, press, petition
right to bear arms
no quartering soldiers
no unreasonable search and seizure
due process of law (Miranda rights)
can't be tried twice
right to a fair, speedy and public trial
right to a trial by jury for civil cases
no cruel and unusual punishments
rights of the people are not limited to the constitution (bill of rights) (individual rights)
all powers not given to the national government are reserved to the state (states rights)
executive branches duties
President apponts judges
president can veto
excecutive= E=Excuses= president
can declare acts of congress unconstitutional
can declare acts
legislative branches duties
can reject treaties
process for amending the constitution
2/3 of all Congress, 3/4 of all states. you must have both.
act or desicion that sets an example for others to follow, like a tradition
what did the federalists-1790's favor?
Leader: Alexander Hamilton
rule by wealthy
strong federal government
emphasis on manufacturing
loose interpretation of constitution
what did the democratic republicans favor?
Leader: Thomas Jefferson
rule by the people
strong state government
emphasis on agriculture
strict interpretation of constitution
importance of Washington's presidency
created a cabinet
crushed the whiskey rebellion
created a department with Hamilton
wanted to stay neutral
jays treaty(removed redcoats)
importance of John Adams presidency
alien and sedition act
created the navy with John Paul Jones
murbury v. Madison= judicial review
used diplomacy to avoid war
Marbury v. Madison
created judicial review when Adam tried to appoint a bunch of judges before he left office
giibons v. ogden
issue- who had the right to operate steamboat
outcome- can regulate commerence
McCulloch v. Maryland
issue- kill national bank
outcome- cannot kill it
federal laws over state laws
maryland=state= McCulloch v. Maryland
importance of Jefferson's presidency
economic policy(government leaves the economy alone)
passed embargo act
non-intercourse act(stops impressment)
Lewis and Clark expedition
importance of James Madison's presidency
war hawks(gain territory from canada)
internal improvements to help transport good
war of 1812 for improvement
treaty of Ghent
what were the cause of the war of 1812
have Indians gums to fight America
major events of the war of 1812
burning of washington D.C
treaty of ghent(no land exchanged)
battle of new Orleans
Jackson becomes famous
war increased manufacturing of supplies which helped boost the U.S
importance of James Monroes presidency
era of good feelings
adams onis treaty
Monroe doctrine was a policy of neutrality
Washington's farewell speech
gave end of 2nd term
warned about political parties
set precedent of neutrality
Monroe's Monroe doctrine
warned European nations not to interfere with U.S
policy continued throughout U.S history
Andrew Jackson vote change
had to be....
21 or older
what got rid of? owning property
causes: tariff helped the north at the expense of the South
south carolina tries to nullify the tariff and threatens to secede from the union
effects: Hendry clay creates a compromise that lowers tarrifs
Indian removal act
gave the president power to move native Americans west of the Mississippi river
Worcester v. Georgia
the Cherokees refused to move and took their case to the supreme court
supreme court ruled in favor of the charokees and said they could stay in Georgia
however: president Jackson dismissed court ruling and told the charokees to move
the belief I. the god given right that America should expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific
westward expansion: Oregon territory
economic: fur trade
political: bring Christianity to native Americans
social: split territory with Britain at the 49 parallel
westward expansion: Texas annexation
economic: Texas could pay off war debt with money from annexation
political: many Americans lived in Texas
social: Polk won election of 1844 by supporting annexation of Texas
westward expansion: Mexican cession/ Gadsden purchase
economic:U.S paid 15 million for cession and 10 million for Gadsden after Mexican war
political: gain California and Utah, which led to gold rush and Mormon migration
social: ended the disputes between Mexico and the U.S.
westward expansion: California gold rush
economic: agriculture, shipping, and trade expanded
political: many groups, 49ers, rushed to California, boomtown
social: California applied for statehood as a free state
a system of bringing manufacturing and steps together in one place to increase efficiency
using girls to work in factories
reform: abolitionist movement
reforming: end of slavery in U.S
important people: William lloyd garrison, Derrick Douglass, Harriet tubman
reform: women's rights movement
reforming: suffrage for women
important people: Elizabeth cady Stanton, lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony
reform: temperance movement
reforming: campaign against the sale and drinking of alcohol that was linked to alcohol abuse and breaking of families
important people: Carrie nation
reforming: terrible treatment of mentally ill and prisionors in prison
important people: dorthea dix
reform: public education
educatuon was seen as a way to decrease poverty and crime
important people: Horace Mann
norths perspective of slavery
slavery was a moral issue
slavery was evil of slavery was not abolished it could bring gods judgement
southern perspective of slavery
slavery was an economic necessity
slavery was a way of life and part of their society
wanted to move slavery west
causes of the civil war
tariff of 1828 and 1832
uncle Tom's cabin
Kansas Nebraska act
election of 1860
Missouri slave state
main free state
36 30 line no slavery above
compromise of 1850
California free state
harsher fugitive slave law
new Mexico and Utah popular soveignty
Dred scott v. stanford
Dred Scott moved with his owner from a slave state to a free state. when his owner died, Scott sued for his freedom
the ruling said that Fred was not a citizen therefore could not sue for his freedom
date: April 12, 1861
south refused to give up fort, firing broke out but no one was injured
first battle of the civil war
date: September 18, 1862
confederate loss, bloodiest battle of war
Lincoln used victory to issue emancipation proclamation
date: July 1-3 1863
confederate loss meant they would never invade union again
Lincoln gave Gettysburg address after this battle
Appomattox court house
date: April 9, 1865
Robert E. Lee (confederate commander) surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant (union commander)
civil war is over, union victory
assassination of lincoln
date: April 15, 1865
John Wilkes booth shots Lincoln in Ford's theatre
reconstruction will look very differently than what Lincoln wanted
p= prison reform
l= labor reform
e= education reform
freed the slaves in the U.S
gave citizenship to former enslaved people
allowed all male citizens the right to vote
free citizens vote
= 13th, 14th, 15th amendments in on words for each amendment
1 min. map
N.A. Europe Asia
Changes to the constitution
Southern farms would allow African Americans to live on a portion of their land in exchange for them to work for it. African Americans would have to pay for all their supplies which caused a cycle of debt.
restricted African Americans freedom.
Jim crow laws
Made segrgation in many public places.
compromise of 1877
pulled the last of the union troops out of the South. this ended the reconstruction period.
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