1. The Golden Age of Personality Psychology at Livingston College Recreate the personology approach all issues to be studied in context of exploring individual lives, personal worlds, histories in depth mutual investigators using different methods collaborative integration of findings ?Personology? ? coined by Henry A. Murray (Harvard Clinic, 1938-1960) Vanished as Murray became older; we able to reappear on Livingston Tomkins suggested that if the 4 (Stolorow, Ogilvie, Carlson, Atwood & Rosenberg) of them were able to get a few more people, they could create a ?critical mass? A critical mass would be something compared to a nuclear fusion where intellectuals with a common vision with a diverse background come together and collaborate their ideas. A REVAMP of psych! It was the end of the possibility of a huge shift in RU to more humanistic treatment! The repersonification of individuals in psych again, a counter the to huge influence of the newtonian G. Worldview! 2. Death of the golden age External reasons( the professional academic setting, the separateness of the individual colleges Internal reasons( jealousy and possessiveness of one's ideas. No one wanted to share anymore thus separating Atwood from Tomkins. 3. Invariant organizing principle (atwood and stolorow) They are the life themes of a person from the theory of personology recurring affect and emotions and corresponds to underlying personality and behavior the invariant consists of 3 elements: Contempt (side of mouth curls a bit)( object is bad. Smile (false)(making nice Self-bite (biting down on lower lip)(I hate myself, depression 4. Unity Thema (Murray) TAT tests( Thematic Appreciation Test, study the stories for some kind of pattern and extract the underlying story which gives a clue to the history of the individual Murray; thematic apperception test (story from a picture), study the little stories for some kind of pattern and extract the underlying story, that story gives a clue to the history of the individual a compound of interrelated needs whose history could be traced to early childhood (from Fantasies of Flight) Essentially what Murray did he interpreted peoples responses to certain stories they derived from pictures in order to get a better understanding of their history why they are the way they are essentially 5. Nuclear Scene and Script (Tomkins) liked to think of personality as a play being staged people are replaying scenes, persons face shows distinct emotional patterns Atwood administered the Rorschach test and video taped her facial expressions. Tomkins had never met her or seen her at all..insisted that the volume be turned off when watching the video ? ?I see the invariant? Example: self-bite...bite bottom lip with own teeth, the person hates themselves or smile of accommodation/compliance 6. Personology Resurrecting the personology approach: all issues to be studied in context of exploring individual lives, personal worlds, histories in depth mutual investigators using different methods collaborative integration of findings not based on quantitative but descriptive and interpretive 7. The ?diagnostic council? in personological studies Murray was involved in writing psychological narratives. Insisted that narratives be written as part of a joint venture with input from a team of researchers that constituted what became known as a "diagnostic council" more than one person doing an in-depth case study on an individual u combine...everyone?s knowledge since...one person can have a different interpretation Murray?s diagnostic council: members were charged with the task of studying case materials and arriving at a consensus regarding critical components of a person?s life 8. The intensive, in-depth case study you look at a persons life through many investigations and for a long period of time. its OD in depth. multiple investigators, multiple methods, converging studies, creative integrations, study person?s childhood 9. Positivism (Comte), a self-cancelling idea the doctrine saying all true observation is external to the observer, or all those statements not referable to external factual data are to be cast into the fire philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method however positivism is not provable by external knowledge comte is the father of it the self cancelling aspect is "all those propositions or assertions about the world that are not provable by external evidence by empirical data, are to be thrown in to the fire. All true observation is external to the observer 10. Behaviorism Atwood's definition is that you take all of the thoughts, feelings, emotions out of psychology and then you get behaviorism Watson is the father of Behaviorism Behaviorism wanted to model the great sciences, so it used Stimulus-response as its atoms also called the learning perspective, is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do ? including acting, thinking and feeling?can and should be regarded as behaviors. seeks to understand human behavior. they don?t believe in anything that can not be observed pretty much Skinner is popular here too! BEHAVIORISM is when the whole concept of man as an experiencing subject is eliminated 11. The Unholy Trinity of Watson, Skinner, and Hull Watson, skinner and hull that helped create the Newtonian Galilean world view that you need things to be like the physical sciences know they had INTENSE religious background Atwood called Watson, Skinner, and Hull the "Unholy Trinity of American Behaviorism" followed by atheism Behaviorism came to symbolize a negation of religion and belief in God and in its own way became a religion because of the absolute certainty against religion. just the fact that all three came from a religious heavy background and found their "truths" in atheism because the 3 of them together advanced the view that you need to view psych like the physical sciences and that you need to have things you can measure and ultimately behaviorism 12. Materialism, determinism, rationalism: the Newtonian-Galilean Weltanschauung (Lecture 6) Blake was against the Newtonian Galilean worldview which included materialism, determinism, and rationalism Determinism - no freedom or spontaneity for anything. What you are going to do is set in stone. Everything you do is already determined. determinism-the human consciousness of freedom and will do not exist determinism is that everything is determined by cause and effect, there is no choice or free will for us Nothing comes out of spontaneity Newtonian materialism- means no soul, no god, the only thing that is real is matter and energy Materialism: the only form anything is= matter/energy. Spirit does not exist. No human should. No god. rationalism- entirely knowable scientifically, there is nothing outside the realm of what can be understood scientifically no alternative paths to knowledge but reason which is the study of natural science. Rules out mythical understanding. Newtonian-Galilean world view- the absolute nature of reality. Its the trend in psychology to view people as physical things rather than an experiencing person 13. Seligman?s learned helplessness studies, Guantanamo, and Seligman?s childhood trauma (Lecture ) learned helplessness is the idea that even if u have the opportunity to help yourself you don?t because past experiences have made you feel as if there is no solution Guantanamo: experiments exposing screaming babies to horrible noises; shocking dogs ~ science, used to the benefit of national security that we are doing learned helplessness on the prisoners through torture learned helplessness is the conditioning procedure in which an organism stops responding to inescapable aversive stimuli because they have "learned" their actions do not control the environment Seligman had a father who had a stroke that left him helpless......eventually he made the dogs in his experiment helpless 14. J.M. Barrie, Peter Pan, the tragedy of Barrie?s early family Barrie's brother died in an ice skating accident or something and his mother never recovered, his mother never smiled Barrie spent most of his time trying to cheer her up and trying not to grow up, so he tried to do everything possible to get his mother to notice him she kept telling Barrie stories of her childhood, 'eventually she says that shed be proud if she was mother of famous writer J.M.?s mother found comfort in the fact that her dead son would remain a boy forever, never to grow up and leave her. he was always trying to earn her love and attention. which was like the window in peter pan and he could never get in the story of peter pan is an image that gave expression to the conflicts of its creator peter pan was a story about a boy who wanted to return to his mother, just like Barrie. peter pan wanted to make his mom smile, just like Barrie it symbolized the dilemma of being locked into a pattern of wanting to return to an early stage of security by a welcoming mother and knowing that things will stay the same forever Barrie didn't want grow up either, no one in the whole book wanted to grow up 15. The meaning of fantasies of flight in relation to early bonds to the mother A fantasy of flight, in relation to the mother means people who have dreams about flying are in distress. They want to return to a more peaceful time. Usually that means in your mothers arms. usually, something happens to the mother which disturbed these boys lives flying takes them away from this place and comforts them OR George said it could mean reaching for some goal...perhaps for Barrie...reaching to make his mother smile have in common the fact that they were placed into these situations, like Barrie didn?t choose to have is brother die and his mom get depressed 16. C.G. Jung?s early childhood history and the splitting of his selfhood into No. 1 and No. 2 he had 2 personalities he called them no 1 and no 2 when he was 3, his mother was hospitalized, yeah, he couldn't love anyone since he didn't like his mother being hospitalized Carl?s father was a pastor...his mom died and he developed a skin disease or something, and he didn't like the fact that his mother wasn't there anymore he didn?t like the word love I know he was very charmed with the concept of mysticism No. 1 was responsible for coping with the realities of everyday life. It was the evolving result of experiential learning required to get along with other people one personality was in the real world, and there other was the subconscious? Jung thought Peter was seeking to return to the source of his existence-his mom page 104 of F of F his solution to fill the void of not having his mother was to invent a new companion and he called it the collective unconscious No.2- p 104 for concrete definition It was connected to something much grander that any earthly attachments had to offer. Jung became a seeker for a better life. he called them the self and the Self... it was the collective unconscious this is the source of energy that has no boundaries, a storehouse of inherited impersonal memories forged by the collective experiences of humankind throughout all time 17. The psychology of knowledge and the sociology of knowledge(Faces in a Cloud) the Psychology of knowledge looks at intellectual ideas with a personal/subjective background the sociology of knowledge looks at intellectual ideas with a social/historical background. Remember sociology looks at things from the outside in Definition(studying the role of subjective factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general they just choose different background factors to filter their knowledge with, it's more than taking into account socio/historical context ??18. De-centering in the genesis of knowledge taking the me out of the process of the beginning of knowledge genesis is beginning and de-centering is displacement The de-centering process occurs as an understanding that one's view of knowledge is particular and subjective rather than universal and objective. A sharpened self-consciousness, an understanding of one's own viewpoint, leads to a better understanding of the way objective reality is structured Metapsychology ? exploratory realm of concepts about universal foundations of human nature and experience; each theory has a few ideas that characterize the building blocks of what makes us what we are Discover the lens behind what they are doing & how it restricts the field you are looking at *One view of knowledge is subjective and not universal, but as a person becomes self-conscious they understand their view better and becomes objective and universal! 19. Relation between the subjectivity and the validity of a theory of personality put subjectivity and the validity of any theory together Theories are supposed to be looked at objectively right, without bias but personality deals primarily with personal feelings everyone is different,so you have to be subjective, but if you put all those subjectivities together you get a theory objectivity is really just a bunch of subjective thoughts each theory is based of subjective ideas it's a consensus so the theory of personality is taking all the other theories and using them in concert, subjectively validity(that no one theory of personality cant be valid since it can not apply to everyone. most personality theories are specific to certain person or type of persons its a clear break from behaviorist principles behaviorist is the total opposite of subjective, its altogether objective Personality Theory(each theory of personality comprises a system of statements regarding the meaning of being human in the world. 20. Pure phenomenology, methodological objectivism, and behaviorism Phenomenology(study of experiences deals with consciousness, specifically the invariant structures of consciousness that constitute the ultimate conditions of the possibility of all conscious experiences it is the study of things as they are perceived as opposed to the study of being, the nature of things as they are. Methodological objectivism(it is a philosophy of the relationship b/w the scientist and his work its based on purely objective truths and everything that goes beyond anything that is verifiable is thrown out you disregard the sentiments of the scientist get rid of experimenter bias by essentially getting rid of the experimenter himself (you can replace the experimenter and it should give same results Behaviorism is a topic before 21. Freud?s feelings toward his mother, and their impact on his theory he adored her. "the relationship between mother and son was the most perfect, free form of ambivalence of all human relationships" He feared losing her to his siblings Atwood believes that he did anything to preserve an entirely positive and idealized image of her, like blame the nursemaid for his neurotic suffering; yet he was torn because he said that she betrayed his love by bringing another "hateful intruder" into the world (a sibling). Thus substituting his idealization of his mom for his wife Martha his theory of psychosexual development reflects a persons conflicts and neurotic difficulties from a reified, internal, biological factor-from a child?s own instinctual drives and drive energies (the concept of id) Oedipus Complex(a concept used in psychoanalysis, is a child's unconscious desire for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite sex. This desire includes jealousy toward the parent of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parent's death. Freud used the term to describe the unconscious feelings of children of both sexes toward their parents 22. Freud?s tendency to form idealizing relationships Take Martha from Faces in a Cloud as an example. He wanted to mold her into an idealized image of perfection in order to prevent traumatic betrayals Had a defensive mindset with his relationships. He wanted to protect the image of his relationships from invasion by negative effects. Take Fliess for example where when Fliess messed up an operation, he took to blame in order to protect his relationship with Fliess. This same occurrence appears several times when he protects his mother 23. The purpose of psycho biographical analysis of personality theories All theories of personality will remain colored by subjective and personal influences It is person-centered research, which gathers large amounts of information on a specific person, where you can identify recurrent themes and see how a life is organized. The internal pressures and external circumstances that contribute to enduring patterns of though and behavior?basically it?s the ?long way of doing it What information you collect from the person is influence by your own life experiences because people tend to identify with others and dwell on their similarities 24. Freud?s speculative theory of the girl?s psychosexual development He saw that in civilization, women have a restraining influence on children and resent the intimacy and love that work takes away from marital relationships They blame their mothers for not being boys and that is why they start to pull away from their mothers when they realize This realization is coupled with the knowledge that her mother doesn?t have a penis leads to her thinking her mother is unworthy, and becoming attracted to her father, as he does have a penis Girls will develop love for their mother until they come to this realization then switch over to love for their father Girls specifically were high in number with hysteria and that they had a longing for their dad, kind of like how boys had a longing for their mom 25. Subjective anthropomorphism (Hull) and mechanomorphism (Maslow) Anthropomorphism( giving something unhuman, humanistic characteristics such as emotions Mechanomorphism (seeing that which is not a machine as a machine (attributing non human thinking to humans). It is basically making humans like robots 26. Watson?s turn to atheism Watson was raised in South Carolina Southern Baptist He was closest to his mother who was a fanatic with regard to the church and he always promised her that he would become a minister. However, once his mother died, he felt no obligation to continue pursuing such an occupation and turned to atheism and behaviorism 27. Freud?s attitude toward the possible existence of God He saw God like he saw a father and his wanting to destroy his father disproved his belief in God He thought God was like what you believed in when art and science were absent He saw religion as controlling He though God was an ?enormously dignified father? and that religion was childish and ridiculous 28. Marshall Applewhite and Larry Walker: similarities and differences (Fantasies of Flight) Applewhite thought he was one of two witnesses and wanted to denounce all material things. He castrated himself and started a new religion where he convinced everyone that there will be a spaceship that will take them away to this joyous place. In order to do this, he convinced them to drink cyanide which killed the people Walker was the guy who put balloons on his lawn chair and floated up and brought a BB gun to pop balloons if he got too high. He waited for the balloons to pop and he floated down because he forgot to tie the BB gun down They both had goals/dreams of flying away and were both trying to achieve something like an escape from reality. When they thought they had succeeded, they lost it. Walters actually went up in the air and flew but everything he had wanted was then done. Applewhite just had a vision of doing it and dreamt of a spaceship that he thought was behind the comet They both also believe that their bodies were ?containers? for the souls. Apple thought that committing suicide would facilitate his body rising up and that the spaceship would take him away(connection to flying The founder of heaven?s gate(they were both in bodies that other soul?s ?rejected? and hated the bodies they were in Their mission of altering the world to God?s plan for the earth?s destruction was the glue that held them together and precluded and need to fashion individual identities 29. Perry Smith and the dream of the great parrot (Fantasies of Flight After killing people in Kansas, he dreamt that there was a big bird that would carry him away to the paradise island which is full of fruits and happiness 30. Skinner?s ?dark year? of depression and its relation to his behaviorism Skinner had a dream to be an author but his parents only offered him support for 1 year and if he didn?t write something worthy he would have to find another career. When he sat down to write, he had absolutely nothing to say Skinner?s Dark Year- Elms(shattering depression(burial of feelings and embracing the study of behavioral phenomena He ended up doing behaviorism...well operant conditioning to be exact 31. Watson?s getting fired from Johns Hopkins for the ?sin? of adultery He went to Johns Hopkins and only got the job because there was a scandal: the Baldwin was caught in a raid at a ?colored brothel? and excused from the department Rosalie Raynor was his lab assistant during the Little Albert experiment with whom he had a passionate sexual love affair Watson was a married man with children, an authority figure in Baltimore and the families were closely acquainted. Through exposure and letters, he was fired from John?s Hopkins 32. Freud?s study of Leonardo and its problems (Fantasies of Flight) The first violation is that he built an argument on a single fragment of a memory or a single ?clue? Leonardo had jotted down in his scientific notebook The second is that he idealized his subject AKA Leonardo and in many ways identified with him Leonardo?s abstinence contributed to him being able to operate freely in the service of intellectual pursuits The quality of Freud?s analysis of Leonardo does not fit his legacy of introducing the power of unconscious processes to modern science He based portions of his argument on a text that had mistranslated the Italian word ?Nibbio?(a word that refers to a bird commonly known as a kite not a vulture 33. Creelan?s view of the Little Albert experiment and what it symbolized He sees Christian symbols of guilt and a lot of religious symbols from Watson?s early childhood. Watson is supposedly acting like a Christ like figure. Adultery like that is a sin that virtually guarantees everlasting damnation. Watson must have had some twinges of guilt about his feelings The Albert experiment is an enactment of a scene of guilt and also redemption Watson named the child Albert because the ?clang? for his uncle (attack on the authority ? flinging the horrible curse of that religion back at its central representative of the family) The clang symbolizes angry punishing protestant god coming down at sinner (the baby was on the threshold of committing the sin that will violate God?s standard for what human behavior should be Another interpretation was that he named the child Albert B. Watson?s mother?s brother, Albert Broadhus was the high priest of the SB church. He sees it as revenge against the church which crushed him as a child 34. Dream Interpretation The function of dreams is to prepare sleep when a stimulus such as external (noise), internal (the feeling to urinate) or psyche (anxiety)threatens to wake us up. Dreams are usually triggered by events of the previous day All dreams fulfill a wish (or attempt to) Free Association on the dream images in therapy provides clues to the latent content. Theory of dreamworks, are the ?mechanisms? that transform latent content into manifest content of the dream. Thoughts(feelings(disturbance of sleep(censoring, disguising(manifest (obvious,clear) Impressions, memories, conscious and unconscious Types of dreams- Condensation-multiple elements ?condense? 2 or more thoughts Displacement-shifting the affect toward or about someone or something to a different object Verbal metaphor- when something methaphorical manifests literally Representation by the opposite- when intense love manifests as murderous intent Reversal of Revelation-when intentions and emotions are swapped. Your intentions are reflected to the other person 35. The Specimen Dream of Irma?s Injection when trying to distinguish why he exchanged her in the dream for her two unruly friends, he says its because he wishes he could have exchanged them either because intelligence The analytical procedure suggested by Freud begins by examining "day residues," events that occur during the days preceding the dream and which, through association, can clarify the dream episode and restore the identity of the protagonists. The interpretation is guided by the assumption that the dream is the fulfillment of a wish, in this case, the wish to ward off responsibility for the fault onto someone else 36. Latent Dream thoughts vs Manifest Dream Contents Latent ( meaning behind the story Manifest( actual story 37. Sources of Dreams Dreams are triggered from by events from previous day 38. Wish Fulfillment Theory of Dreams They attempt to fill wishes The ?mechanisms? that transform latent content into manifest content of the dream. 39. Examination Dreams and Flying Dreams According to Freud Freud considers ?typical dreams? Dreamer sees himself back at school taking an exam Dreamer is embarrassed to see himself as an adult among much younger fellow students and obligated to retake an exam that he already passed a long time ago He said that those anxious exam dreams you have that you?re not going to pass a test?only happen to people who?ve managed to pass exams in the past, not people who flunked He said those anxiety dreams about failing happen with tasks you?ve had success with before. 40. Dream Work and the Mechanisms of Condensation and Displacement= censorship Condensation: when two or more dream elements condense into 1 (two friends into mom example) Displacement: shifting the affect toward or about someone/something to a different object ( kicking your dog when you actually want to kick your mom) Verbal Metaphor: When something metaphorical manifests literally Representation by the opposite: when thoughts you have are reversed but with emotions or objects Reversal of relation: when thoughts you have are reversed but with people (you like your neighbor but you dream that they like you example) 41. The Model of the ?Psychic Apparatus? (Ch. 7 Int. of Dreams) Stimulus (what we see/hear/eat) come in as perceptions then most of our memories end up in our unconscious but some get filtered through our pre-conscious and end up in our consciousness EXAM QUESTIONS 1. In Skinner's vision of the world, understood scientifically as he pictured the nature of science, which of the following is true? a) human choices determine human destiny. b) motivational states inside the organism produce need satisfying gratification c) there is no place for freedom, pride, guild, and shame 2. According to faces in a cloud, an analysis of the personal origin of a personality theory assists in evaluating and separating the theory's generality or range of applicability. true or false 3. What traits or aspects can you see in unique emotional signatures? A: In their facial expressions, words used in writing, and body language (crossed arms of Ellis or open Buddha like arms of Rogers) 4. Therapists can express their own emotional signatures upon their patients. How did this apply to ellis, rogers, and pearl when it came to their shared patient gloria? Gloria maintained her own unique emotional signature throughout each therapy. With Rogers she found a caring, concerned, individual. (His buddah position showed almost an open hug embrace). And there were even signs of attraction. She was able to be Sad, Distressed, and then joyful in the session. With Pearls she found anger with the session. He was nervous way before the therapy even began. He immediately told her to sit, yet was quite jittery himself. He makes the session very uncomfortable and frustrating. With Ellis he was cross armed and using his pointing finger to express condemnation often. He used rational emotional therapy, and was quite cold pointing at her flaws as reifications of his arguments. She found a lot of disgust with him. 5. How does an emotion signature operate... A. slippage B. fleetingness C. crystalization D. rigidity E. all of the above 6. Each therapist saw the same client Gloria, what did we see for Gloria's emotion... A. she showed anger with Perls, sadness w/ Roger and distrust w/ Ellis B. maintained her own emotional signature w/ all three C. varied w. topics D. primarily 1 and secondarily 2 and thirdly 3
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